Carved blocks uncovered at La Corona show scenes of Mayan life and record a political history of the city.
CREDIT: David Stuart
A newly discovered Mayan text reveals the “end date” for the Mayan calendar, becoming only the second known document to do so. But unlike some modern people, ancient Maya did not expect the world to end on that date, researchers said.
“This text talks about ancient political history rather than prophecy,” Marcello Canuto, the director of Tulane University Middle America Research Institute, said in a statement. “This new evidence suggests that the 13 bak’tun date was an important calendrical event that would have been celebrated by the ancient Maya; however, they make no apocalyptic prophecies whatsoever regarding the date.”
The Mayan Long Count calendar is divided into bak’tuns, or 144,000-day cycles that begin at the Maya creation date. The winter solstice of 2012 (Dec. 21) is the last day of the 13th bak’tun, marking what the Maya people would have seen as a full cycle of creation.
Now, researchers exploring the Mayan ruins of La Corona in Guatemala have unearthed a second reference. On a stairway block carved with hieroglyphs, archaeologists found a commemoration of a visit by Yuknoom Yich’aak K’ahk’ of Calakmul, the most powerful Mayan ruler in his day. The king, also known as Jaguar Paw, suffered a terrible defeat in battle by the Kingdom of Tikal in 695.
Historians have long assumed that Jaguar Paw died or was captured in this battle. But the carvings proved them wrong. In fact, the king visited La Corona in A.D. 696, probably trying to shore up loyalty among his subjects in the wake of his defeat four years earlier. [See images of the carvings]
As part of this publicity tour, the king was calling himself the “13 k’atun lord,” the carvings reveal. K’atuns are another unit of the Maya calendar, corresponding to 7,200 days or nearly 20 years. Jaguar Paw had presided over the ending of the 13th of these k’atuns in A.D. 692.
That’s where the 2012 calendar end date comes in. In an effort to tie himself and his reign to the future, the king linked his reign with another 13th cycle — the 13th bak’tun of Dec. 21, 2012.
A detailed look at the carvings on Block 5, found at La Corona in Guatemala. The carvings tell a political history of the city and its allies and enemies.
CREDIT: David Stuart
“What this text shows us is that in times of crisis, the ancient Maya used their calendar to promote continuity and stability rather than predict apocalypse,” Canuto said.
La Corona was the site of much looting and has only been explored by modern archaeologists for about 15 years. Canuto and his dig co-director Tomas Barrientos Q. of the Universidad del Valle de Guatemala announced the discovery of the new calendar text Thursday (June 28) at the National Palace in Guatemala.
The researchers first uncovered the carved stone steps in 2010 near a building heavily damaged by looters. The robbers had missed this set of 12 steps, however, providing a rare example of stones still in their original places. The researchers found another 10 stones from the staircase that had been moved but then discarded by looters. In total, these 22 stones boast 264 hieroglyphs tracing the political history of La Corona, making them the longest known ancient Maya text in Guatemala.
A mountain looming over a French commune with a population of just 200 is being touted as a modern Noah’s Ark when doomsday arrives – supposedly less than nine months from now.
A rapidly increasing stream of New Age believers – or esoterics, as locals call them – have descended in their camper van-loads on the usually picturesque and tranquil Pyrenean village of Bugarach. They believe that when apocalypse strikes on 21 December this year, the aliens waiting in their spacecraft inside Pic de Bugarach will save all the humans near by and beam them off to the next age.
As the cataclysmic date – which, according to eschatological beliefs and predicted astrological alignments, concludes a 5,125-year cycle in the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar – nears, the goings-on around the peak have become more bizarre and ritualistic.
For decades, there has been a belief that Pic de Bugarach, which, at 1,230 metres, is the highest in the Corbières mountain range, possesses an eery power. Often called the “upside-down mountain” – geologists think that it exploded after its formation and the top landed the wrong way up – it is thought to have inspired Jules Verne’s Journey to the Centre of the Earth and Steven Spielberg’s Close Encounters of the Third Kind. Since the 1960s, it has attracted New Agers, who insist that it emits special magnetic waves.
Further, rumours persist that the country’s late president François Mitterrand was transported by helicopter on to the peak, while the Nazis, and, later, Israel’s Mossad, performed mysterious digs there. Now the nearby village is awash with New Agers, who have boosted the local economy, though their naked group climbs up to the peak have raised concerns as well as eyebrows. Among other oddities, some hikers have been spotted scaling the mountain carrying a ball with a golden ring, strung together by a single thread.
A grizzled man wearing a white linen smock, who calls himself Jean, set up a yurt in the forest a couple of years ago to prepare for the earth’s demise. “The apocalypse we believe in is the end of a certain world and the beginning of another,” he offers. “A new spiritual world. The year 2012 is the end of a cycle of suffering. Bugarach is one of the major chakras of the earth, a place devoted to welcoming the energies of tomorrow.”
Upwards of 100,000 people are thought to be planning a trip to the mountain, 30 miles west of Perpignan, in time for 21 December, and opportunistic entrepreneurs are shamelessly cashing in on the phenomenon. While American travel agents have been offering special, one-way deals to witness the end of the world, a neighbouring village, Saint-Paul de Fenouillet, has produced a wine to celebrate the occasion.
Jean-Pierre Delord, the perplexed mayor of Bugarach, has flagged up the situation to the French authorities, requesting they scramble the army to the tiny village for fear of a mass suicide. It has also caught the attention of France’s sect watchdog, Miviludes.
A genial sexagenarian, Mr Delord says: “We’ve seen a huge rise in visitors. Already this year more than 20,000 people have climbed right to the top, and last year we had 10,000 hikers, which was a significant rise on the previous 12 months. They think Pic de Bugarach is ‘un garage à ovnis’ [an alien garage]. The villagers are exasperated: the exaggerated importance of something which they see as completely removed from reality is bewildering. After 21 December, this will surely return to normal.”
Masking his fears of what might happen on 21 December, Mr Delord jokes that he will throw a party and supply vin chaud and cheese. “I’m sure we’ll have a little fete to celebrate that we’re still alive,” he smiles. “I suppose it’s up to each of us to find our own way.”
11/11/11: How Friday Is Tied to the Mayan Apocalypse
Stephanie Pappas, LiveScience Senior Writer
Date: 10 November 2011 Time: 02:30 PM ET
Some believe the end of the Mayan calendar, Dec. 21, 2012, will usher in a new spiritual era or even a doomsday. And it so happens the timing of next year’s winter solstice may have led to a link between 11/11/11 and this Mayan apocalypse. CREDIT: Morphart | Shutterstock
Friday’s numerical date is written out as 11/11/11. And for some people, that number sequence is more than a coincidence or inevitability — it’s a spiritual signal linked to 2012 Mayan prophecies of both doom and spiritual renewal.
Nov. 11, 2011 mythologies are pervasive on New Age corners of the Internet, with believers suggesting that 11/11 numerical sequences are signals from angels or numbers with hidden meanings. Even people who think little of numerology are finding meaning in the day: The Orlando Sentinel reports that Walt Disney World will host 11 weddings on 11/11/11.
But perhaps the most intriguing 11/11/11 mythology to pop up is the number’s link with the supposed 2012 Mayan Apocalypse. The ancient Mayan long-count calendar ends on Dec. 21, 2012, and some people believe that this date will usher in a new spiritual era, or even doomsday. Nov. 11, 2011 most likely became linked with Dec. 21, 2012 when believers noticed that the U.S. Naval Observatory had set the exact time of the 2012 winter solstice for 11:11 Universal Time on Dec. 21, according to John Hoopes, a scholar of Maya history at the University of Kansas.
It’s essentially based on the notion of synchronicities,” Hoopes told LiveScience. Synchronicities are meaningful coincidences, he said. And while everyone has a psychological tendency to find minding in random patterns the subcultures that believe in 2012 mythology tend to be those that dabble in psychedelics and cannabis, drugs that increase feelings of synchronicity.
“If it seems like the 2012 mythology was thought up by people on drugs, it’s because it was,” Hoopes said.
The meaning of 11
Indeed, the U.S. Naval Observatory now lists the official time of the 2012 winter solstice, when Earth’s tilt is angled as far away as possible from the sun, at 11:12 Universal Time on Dec. 21. This has not stopped 2012 believers from focusing on the 11:11 time.
In part, this is because 11:11 mythology has been floating around online for some time. The website 1111spiritguardians.com holds that noticing a clock when the time is 11:11 is a signal from “1,111 fun-loving Spirit Guardians, or Angels.” Other times, such as 12:12, 10:10 or 12:34 are messages, too, according to the site.
These numbers may seem special to people because they stick in our minds, Hoopes said. No one remembers looking at the clock when the numbers don’t make a pattern.
“People are more likely to remember 11:11 than they are, say, 4:29 or 6:53 or 3:17 or something like that,” Hoopes said.
Psychologists call the temptation to find patterns in random data pareidolia. This phenomenon is also responsible for visions of the Virgin Mary in toast or other objects.
Once you accept 11 as a meaningful number — whether because it looks so symmetrical or because you keep seeing it on your digital watch — it’s easy to find the number everywhere. One article on the website 2012rising.com ties together the Mayan calendar, the terrorist attacks of 9/11, the average length of polarity reversals of the sun’s magnetic field, and the author making post number 1111 on a 2012 message board.
“The sun having an 11.11 year cycle, the winter solstice of 2012 falling at 11:11 and people all over the world finding themselves bombarded with 11’s [sic] just as science is predicting some kind of majestic solar event at the peak of this current cycle seems more than coincidence,” the author writes.
(Solar activity does indeed peak about every 11 years, potentially disrupting satellite communications, but according to NASA, there is no special risk associated with 2012 and the peaks are not expected to be different than previous historical peaks.)
With all these 11s to pluck from, 11/11/11 predictions are flowing fast. New Age adherents have predicted everything from end-of-world scenarios to the ushering in of a new spiritual era.
“The buzz on the net and on Twitter and elsewhere is that 11/11/11 is the unofficial start of the 2012 metaphysical year,” Hoopes said.
Even moviemakers are cashing in on the action, with a horror/thriller movie titled “11-11-11” set for release on the date. The plot of the movie centers on a scary, mysterious force that will enter the Earthly realm at 11:11 on 11/11/11.
Non-commercial predictions tend to be more positive than doom-centered, however. The number 11 is seen as a signal that all people are one, for example, and the date is more likely to be seen as an end to greed and disconnection than as an end to humanity. That puts 11/11/11 prophets in a different class than those such as Harold Camping, who predicted a Biblical doomsday in late October.
IT WAS WRITTEN IN TIME… by Humbatz Men (Mayan daykeeper)
It was written in the deepness of stars that the sacred crystal skulls would return on the right time to guide mankind and make them learn from the cosmic laws. This pilgrimage we are going to do is the beginning of that prophecy written in time. But hundreds of years ago, there in a holy site known as Manhattan today, a similar story took place.
Hundreds of years ago, the inhabitants of this site welcomed the first settlers who came from Europe, event that marked the beginning of a New Age. That place was called ManhatHan by the native Mayan inhabitants and those European people named the natives with the name of Maya Troglodytes. After a long trip to the west, these new people arrived into another site where they were welcomed by the Chumaac K’in people. This site is known today as Los Angeles, in the state of California.
Today this story is about to be repeated after such a long time. The difference is that now it will mark the beginning of a new cycle of 5,125 years and that we are going to celebrate this important event in a ritualistic way when the crystal skull caretakers transmit the power held by the skulls onto the members of the Maya Itza Council. Later on, these Mayas are going to deposit this great power of the skulls into the 104 Mayan ceremonial centers that are going to be activated in 2012. This way, these sacred sites will be ready to welcome the manifestation of the Great Spirit and the beginning of the new cycle of 5,125 years.
So 2012 will be the right time and from the very first day of that year we must be ready to welcome all the changes it will bring along. On December 21, 2012, which is the winter solstice, the great manifestations of power will be seen and heard by the whole mankind. After this, the great power of Great Father Sun will shake the genetics of all manifestations of life and when he starts his journey to the north of the continent, the genetics of every human being that has been incarnated as a child of the sun will be awaken. Just after this, they will start to remember their past solar lives.
When the members of the Maya Itza Council return to the sacred Mayan temples, they will start to work on the activation of the 104 Mayan ceremonial centers immediately. This activation will be at a spiritual level and in that moment we will invoke the spirits of the Mayas who have been in different sites of the world, in different times, under different names; for example, Kara Mayas, Naga Mayas, Mayax, Maya Troglodytes, Maya Itza, and some other names that have been recorded in history. So these Mayan spirits shall get manifested to show us the right cosmic solar pathway we must follow. By the time we conclude all that sacred work, we will be living the right date December 21, 2012.
Then the Mayan Temples will begin to give off their light which is really needed by the whole mankind. Among these sacred temples we can mention: Tikal, Chichen Itza, Palenque, Edznah, Coba, Tajin, Kohunlich, Yaxchilam, Toninah, Monte Alban, Cholula, Tula, Cuicuilco, and some other hundreds of sacred sites in the Mayan area, as well as some other hundreds in the whole Americas.So we must be ready to welcome the Great Cosmic Spirit and be able to channel the energy we are going to receive during our initiation to our Mother Earth in order to be true children of the cosmos.
In this physical life, I reincarnated near Chichen Itza. That is the reason why I am going to be in charge of activating that sacred site and welcoming the Great Spirit there. I will do this together with my sacred skull which was granted to me by the Great Spirit from the Himalaya Mount there in the sacred lands of Tibet. Once I reincarnated in that sacred site and lived there physically hundreds of years ago.
However, today my destiny is here with my Mayan brothers and sisters in the sacred temples, especially the ones in Wenk’al. I was educated there by my uncle named Don Beto who now must be serving our great creator Hunab K’u, our Mayan God that lives in the Universe. He comes to us every morning with our Father Sun to bless all manifestations of life on our Mother Earth who will feel very happy to see all her children doing the grand cosmic ritual on December 21, 2012.
That day, December 21, 2012, will be the day when the wisdom that was deposited there will start to flow in most of the Mayan ceremonial centers. This will let the cosmic wisdom become more accessible to everyone and the wisdom of the 17 Mayan Calendars as well as the sacred Mayan Geometry will begin to be taught in all the teaching centers. That fact will also allow us to understand the secrets of the Mayan geometric god and the 7 levels of the sacred Mayan language. People who have already been awakened will be able to understand the mystic Mayan language which will lead them to the understanding of the secrets of other languages in the world. Also it will allow them understand many symbols that very few people know.
All this wisdom is held in all the 104 Mayan ceremonial centers where the members of the Mayan Council shall go first in order to request permission from the great spirits who will be awaiting our arrival to facilitate us do this important sacred work on December 21, 2012 when all the initiates of the world will begin their initiation within this new cycle of 5,125 years. This is the only way to enter the dimension of the cosmic time, characterized by the universal and unified way of thinking. Only then our cosmic brothers and sisters from beyond the universe will consider us like beings that will have evolved at a cosmic level.
On the other hand, if we continue walking on this fake pathway of the so-called “progress”, in which our human values are being manipulated by vain interests and every ruler thinks he has found a mine of gold, then we will be causing the destruction of our Mother Earth and our self-destruction. We will get lost in that pathway of the no return, with no beginning or end, and then our gods will cry for so long that their abundant tears will make us get drowned in the sea of desperation. The trees will see sadly the desperation of their human siblings and so will the animals. They both will feel sad because the human beings could not find the cosmic pathway of happiness and finally, the winds will blow so strongly that they will blow away our spirits in order to purify them within the memory of forgetfulness.
Maya Itza for the next 5,125 years
TO ALL OUR SOLAR BROTHERS AND SISTERS: We are very glad to inform all of you initiates from all over the world that on October 27th, 2011,
we will be a the ARE of NYC, 241 West 30th street, NYC
From there the pilgrimage journey with the sacred Crystal Skulls is going to leave from
Manhattan, New York, with destination to Los Ángeles, CA, in the United States.
All along the way we are going to invoke and implore the Great Cosmic Spirit to enlighten our pathway
and the roads we are going to walk on carrying our sacred crystal skulls. This way the skulls will enlighten
and activate all the sites where the Great Cosmic Spirit is going to be present. Thus, the sacred sites we
are going to visit like Great Serpent Mound, OH; the temples of Cahokia, IL; Crestone, Colorado,
Sedona, AZ; and many other
sacred centers will be activated through this cosmic resonance. Tamuanchán (the original Mayan name for the
USA) will be once again the sacred site that must enlighten the whole of mankind in this world.
Please help us make this journey of spiritual greatness so the sacred crystal skulls take us in these our
beloved lands of our eternal Tamuanchán where our Father Sun and our Mother Earth will take care of our sacred spirit forever.
May the Great Spirit be always with you. Hunbatz Men
Council of Maya Itza Priests and Elders
Schedule for the 13th Crystal Skull Pilgrimage New York to Los Angeles
ScienceDaily (Nov. 3, 2011) — University of Kansas anthropologist and Maya scholar John Hoopes and his students are watching predicted doomsday dates such as 11/11/11 and Dec. 21, 2012, with considerable skepticism.
Hoopes is regarded as one of the major go-to guys to separate fact from fiction about the Maya calendar and a prediction that the world would end Dec. 21, 2012.
He has written scholarly articles debunking the 2012 myth, including a chapter in “2012: Decoding the Counterculture Apocalypse,” edited by Joseph Gelfer and scheduled for release this month by Equinox Publishing. In addition, Hoopes contributes to Wikipedia as a 2012 skeptic and is featured in at least three documentaries on the topic (“Apocalypse 2012” airing on CNBC, and two more scheduled for release next year). In his fall course on Archaeological Myths and Realities — An Introduction to Critical Thinking, the 2012 myth works as a dynamic teaching tool.
This fall, Hoopes and his students have watched two predicted cataclysmic dates — Oct. 21 and 28 — come and go with little fanfare. Oct. 21 was a date selected by California evangelist Harold Camping after his original May 21, 2011, prediction passed without calamity. Swedish pharmacologist, self-help advocate and self-taught Maya cosmologist Carl Johan Calleman was among those predicting that Oct. 28 would usher in a worldwide unified consciousness.
The next big date to consider is 11/11/11, when many in the New Age movement plan celebrations to receive emerging energies in preparation for a transformation of consciousness on Dec. 21, 2012.
Whether these dates mark a time for transformation of consciousness or a catastrophic end, they are part of a 2012 eschatological myth that originated with Christopher Columbus and Franciscan missionaries, not the ancient Maya calendar, Hoopes emphasizes.
In a paper presented in January at the Oxford IX International Symposium on Archaeoastronomy in Lima, Peru, Hoopes tracks the 2012 Maya myth origins through various revivals into the 21st century. The myth is rooted in an early 16th-century European combination of astrological and biblical prophecies to explain the new millennium. Columbus believed that his discovery of the world’s “most remote land” would lead to Spain’s re-conquest of Jerusalem and fulfill world-end events described in the Book of Revelations.
To validate his convictions, Columbus wrote his own Book of Prophecies that included an account of his interview with a “Maia” leader in 1502. The reference inspired early speculation by explorers and missionaries, indirectly influencing crackpots as well as scholars to link ancient Maya — before any contact with Europeans — with the astrological and religious beliefs popular in Europe in the 1500s.
Misinterpretations and distortions flowed with each revival of interest in Maya culture. In the 1960s, the myth re-flowered as the dawning of the Age of Aquarius, enjoyed a resurgence in Y2K and thrives today. Hoopes adds that the Occupy Wall Street movement clearly reflects a nostalgia for the progressive culture of the 1960s.
More than 1,000 books have been published on the 2012 myth, not to mention a plethora of Web sites on the topic. Hoopes expects the hype won’t hit its peak until well into 2012. Fear and fantasy both sell well, especially in uncertain times, he notes.
End-of-the-world and transformative beliefs are found in many ancient cultures but have been a fundamental part of modern times since 1499, Hoopes point out. They are also fundamentally American, he adds.
“The United States has always embraced religious freedom. Peculiar religious sects, including occult beliefs, have always been part of America,” he says.
Astrology, Ouija boards, séances, channeling, spiritualists, extraterrestrial life and a host of pseudosciences all have had acceptance in parts of America, he adds. Mary Todd Lincoln used séances to contact her son. Nancy Reagan consulted astrologists.
Wishful or magical thinking help perpetuate myths and beliefs that have no basis in science. Hoopes uses the 2012 myth and others to teach students to think critically and learn to distinguish science and myth.
“If a narrative has a moral message, then it probably is not a scientific story. Stories based in science ideally should be objective, not subjective,” Hoopes says.
The persistence of the 2012 myth may reflect a fear of mortality that has nagged ancient and modern civilizations.
“It’s much easier to discuss mortality when we’re all in the same boat,” Hoopes said. “Creating a concerned community allays people’s fears and allows us to project individual morality onto the world.”
Hoopes’ interest in the 2012 phenomenon began as an academic hobby and has evolved into an anthropological study of contemporary American culture. At the very least, he says, the 2012 phenomenon “has made a huge audience aware of Maya calendrics and the winter solstice.”
Why the Creation Cycles do not end
December 21 2012, but October 28, 2011
by Carl Calleman
Over the decades much discussion has focussed on finding the exact correlation between the Mayan Long Count and the Gregorian calendar. Most researchers in the field have now come to agree that the so-called GMT correlation, placing the beginning of the Long Count 4 Ahau 8 Cumku on the Julian day 584 283, August 11, 3114 BC, is correct. This means by consequence that it will end on December 21, 2012 and most students of the calendar of the Maya, such as Jose Arguelles, John Jenkins and Terence McKenna, have endorsed this date as the end of the current cycle.
I do not dispute that the GMT correlation for the Long Count with the Gregorian calendar is the correct one. And clearly, the Long Count is an approximately (within a year or so) correct reflection of the divine process of creation. There are however strong reasons to believe that the Mayan Long Count itself does not exactly reflect the shifting energies of the divine creation cycles that we today are interested in. What in this regard is most compelling is that the exact Long Count beginning date ultimately is calibrated based on the date of solar zenith in Izapa, which occurs on August 12. (Izapa is the ancient Mayan site in southern Mexico where the Long Count was first devised.)
This solar zenith day was since long, long before the Long Count was implemented, considered as the day of the year when “time began” and considered as a holy date in the location of Izapa. There is thus every reason to believe that the solar zenith was the reason the initial day in the Long Count, 4 Ahau 8 Cumku, was set on this day, although obviously the date of solar zenith in Izapa has nothing to do with the real beginning of the corresponding divine creation cycle. (Not to use the solar zenith date as the beginning of the Long Count would have been considered as heresy. We may make the comparison with the date of Christmas, which was taken from old solstice celebrations, and has not been changed, despite the fact that few, if any, believes that Jesus was born then).
That the end date of the Long Count falls on December 21, 2012 is thus just a necessary logical consequence of the beginning date chosen by the Izapans and not something that the Maya had intentionally targeted. The creation cycles described by the Maya, including the tzolkin, are fundamentally of a spiritual, non-astronomical, nature. Thus, any theory that implies that the Mayan Long Count would have been designed to reflect astronomical phenomena, be it the precession of the earth or a solar zenith, is a warning signal that its originator is off the mark. It should be obvious that if the Mayan calendar is a prophetic calendar describing cosmic energy cycles of a universal nature then the particular date at which the sun was in zenith in the particular location of Izapa is totally irrelevant for us who live today and must be considered as nothing but a result of a tradition too strong to be changed.
Another equally compelling reason why December 21, 2012 cannot be the true date of completion of creation is that this day is 4 Ahau in the tzolkin count. Since the Long Count consists of exactly 7200 tzolkin rounds then the true end of creation must fall on a day that is 13 Ahau in the tzolkin count so that the tzolkin rounds even out. If we want to find out what is the real date of ending of the creation cycles we must therefore look for a day around the year 2012, which is 13 Ahau in the tzolkin count. The inscriptions in Palenque, written about a thousand years after the Long Count was devised in Izapa, seem to indicate that the date of relevance is October 28, 2011, which in fact is 13 Ahau in the tzolkin count.
The issue of the exact correlation between the creation cycles and physical time may not have been as critical in the age of the Maya as it is to us, since creation is currently operating at a 400 times higher frequency. A discrepancy of a year or so may have meant less earlier than it does to us who live today. If we make a mistake of 420 days in calibrating the end date of the creation cycles we will be totally out of phase with the rapidly evolving Galactic Creation Cycle where the Yin/Yang dualities in the cosmos are switched off and on every 360 days. These energy changes are what a spiritual calendar should reflect if it is to serve humanity in its current phase of evolution.
It should be said also that those who propose December 21, 2012 as an end date, such as Terence McKenna and John Jenkins, are basing their entire interpretations of the Mayan calendar on this particular date of ending, as if this was what the entire calendar was about. I feel however that what is most important for us to know today is the processes leading up to the completion of creation and the attainment of Cosmic Consciousness. This process is driven forward by the roller-coaster-like Galactic Creation Cycle, and for those seeking to understand this process and its many manifestations an exact calibration of this cycle is imperative. This is now available in calendar form.
355- AD 40
Corrected durations of the Thirteen Heavens baktuns of the Long Count