Consciousness & The Brain by Dr. Dossey

Why Consciousness Is Not the Brain

Larry Dossey

Physicist Freeman Dyson believes the cosmos is suffused with consciousness, from the grandest level to the most minute dimensions. If it is, why aren’t we aware of it?

“We don’t know who first discovered water, but we can be sure that it wasn’t a fish,” the old saw reminds us. Continual exposure to something reduces our awareness of its presence. Over time, we become blind to the obvious. We swim in a sea of consciousness, like a fish swims in water. And like a fish that has become oblivious to his aqueous environment, we have become dulled to the ubiquity of consciousness.

In science, we have largely ignored how consciousness manifests in our existence. We’ve done this by assuming that the brain produces consciousness, although how it might do so has never been explained and can hardly be imagined.

The polite term for this trick is “emergence.” At a certain stage of biological complexity, evolutionary biologists claim, consciousness pops out of the brain like a rabbit from a magician’s hat. Yet this claim rests on no direct evidence whatsoever. As Rutgers University philosopher Jerry A. Fodo flatly states, “Nobody has the slightest idea how anything material could be conscious. So much for our philosophy of consciousness.”

In spite of the complete absence of evidence, the belief that the brain produces consciousness endures and has ossified into dogma. Many scientists realize the limitations of this belief. One way of getting around the lack of evidence is simply to declare that what we call consciousness is the brain itself. That way, nothing is produced, and the magic of “emergence” is avoided.

As astronomer Carl Sagan expressed his position, “My fundamental premise about the brain is that its workings—what we sometimes call mind—are a consequence of anatomy and physiology, and nothing more.” Nobelist Francis Crick agreed, saying a “person’s mental activities are entirely due to the behavior of nerve cells, glial cells, and the atoms, ions, and molecules that make up and influence them.”

This “identity theory”—mind equals brain—has led legions of scientists and philosophers to regard consciousness as an unnecessary, superfluous concept. Some go out of their way to deny the existence of consciousness altogether, almost as if they bear a grudge against it. Tufts University cognitive scientist Daniel Dennett says, “We’re all zombies. Nobody is conscious.” Dennett includes himself in this extraordinary claim, and he seems proud of it.

Others suggest that there are no mental states at all, such as love, courage, or patriotism, but only electrochemical brain fluxes that should not be described with such inflated language. They dismiss thoughts and beliefs for the same reasons.

This led Nobel neurophysiologist Sir John Eccles to remark that “professional philosophers and psychologists think up the notion that there are no thoughts, come to believe that there are no beliefs, and feel strongly that there are no feelings.”

Eccles was emphasizing the absurdities that have crept into the debates about consciousness. They are not hard to spot. Some of the oddest experiences I recall are attending conferences where one speaker after another employs his consciousness to denounce the existence of consciousness, ignoring the fact that he consciously chose to register for the meeting, make travel plans, prepare his talks, and so on.

Many scientists concede that there are huge gaps in their knowledge of how the brain makes consciousness, but they are certain they will be filled in as science progresses. Eccles and philosopher of science Karl Popper branded this attitude “promissory materialism.”

“Promissary materialism is a superstition without a rational foundation,” Eccles says. “It is simply a religious belief held by dogmatic materialists … who confuse their religion with their science. It has all the features of a messianic prophecy.”

The arguments about the origins and nature of consciousness are central to premonitions. For if the promissory materialists are correct—if consciousness is indeed identical with the brain—the curtain closes on premonitions.

The reason is that the brain is a local phenomenon—i.e., it is localized to the brain and body, and to the present. This prohibits premonitions in principle, because accordingly the brain cannot operate outside the body and the here-and-now. But consciousness can operate beyond the brain, body, and the present, as hundreds of experiments and millions of testimonials affirm. Consciousness cannot, therefore, be identical with the brain.

These assertions are not hyperbolic, but conservative. They are consistent with the entire span of human history, throughout which all cultures of which we have record believed that human perception extends beyond the reach of the senses. This belief might be dismissed as superstition but for the fact that modern research has established its validity beyond reasonable doubt to anyone whose reasoning has not clotted into hardened skepticism.

To reiterate a single example—the evidence supporting foreknowledge—psi researchers Charles Honorton and Diane Ferrari examined 309 precognition experiments carried out by sixty-two investigators involving 50,000 participants in more than two million trials. Thirty percent of these studies were significant in showing that people can describe future events, when only five percent would be expected to demonstrate such results by chance. The odds that these results were not due to chance was greater than 10 to the twentieth power to one.

One of the first modern thinkers to endorse an outside-the-brain view of consciousness was William James, who is considered the father of American psychology. In his 1898 Ingersoll Lecture at Harvard University, James took a courageous stand against what he called “the fangs of cerebralism and the idea that consciousness is produced by the brain.”

He acknowledged that arrested brain development in childhood can lead to mental retardation, that strokes or blows to the head can abolish memory or consciousness, and that certain chemicals can change the quality of thought. But to consider this as proof that the brain actually makes consciousness, James said, is irrational.

Why irrational? Consider a radio, an invention that was introduced during James’s lifetime, and which he used to illustrate the mind-brain relationship. If one bangs a radio with a hammer, it ceases to function. But that does not mean that the origin of the sounds was the radio itself; the sound originated from outside it in the form of an electromagnetic signal. The radio received, modified, and amplified the external signal into something recognizable as sound.

Just so, the brain can be damaged in various ways that distort the quality of consciousness—trauma, stroke, nutritional deficiencies, dementia, etc. But this does not necessarily mean the brain “made” the consciousness that is now disturbed, or that consciousness is identical to the brain.

British philosopher Chris Carter endorses this analogy. Equating mind and brain is as irrational, he says, as listening to music on a radio, smashing the radio’s receiver, and thereby concluding that the radio was producing the music.

To update the analogy, consider a television set. We can damage a television set so severely that we lose the image on the screen, but this doesn’t prove that the TV actually produced the image. We know that David Letterman does not live behind the TV screen on which he appears; yet the contention that brain equals consciousness is as absurd as if he did.

The radio and TV analogies can be misleading, however, because consciousness does not behave like an electromagnetic signal. Electromagnetic (EM) signals display certain characteristics. The farther away they get from their source, the weaker they become.

Not so with consciousness; its effects do not attenuate with increasing distance. For example, in the hundreds of healing experiments that have been done in both humans and animals, healing intentions work equally well from the other side of the earth as at the bedside of the sick individual. Moreover, EM signals can be blocked partially or completely, but the effects of conscious intention cannot be blocked by any known substance.

For instance, sea water is known to block EM signals completely at certain depths, yet experiments in remote viewing have been successfully carried out beyond such depths, demonstrating that the long-distance communication between the involved individuals cannot depend on EM-type signals.

In addition, EM signals require travel time from their source to a receiver, yet thoughts can be perceived simultaneously between individuals across global distances. Thoughts can be displaced in time, operating into both past and future.

In precognitive remote viewing experiments—for example, the hundreds of such experiments by the PEAR Lab at Princeton University—the receiver gets a future thought before it is ever sent. Furthermore, consciousness can operate into the past, as in the experiments involving retroactive intentions. Electromagnetic signals are not capable of these feats. From these differences, we can conclude that consciousness is not an electric signal.

Then what is it? My conclusion is that consciousness is not a thing or substance, but is a nonlocal phenomenon. Nonlocal is merely a fancy word for infinite. If something is nonlocal, it is not localized to specific points in space, such as brains or bodies, or to specific points in time, such as the present.

Nonlocal events are immediate; they require no travel time. They are unmediated; they require no energetic signal to “carry” them. They are unmitigated; they do not become weaker with increasing distance. Nonlocal phenomena are omnipresent, everywhere at once. This means there is no necessity for them to go anywhere; they are already there. They are infinite in time as well, present at all moments, past present and future, meaning they are eternal.

Researcher Dean Radin, whose presentiment experiments provide profound evidence for future knowing, believes that the nonlocal events in the subatomic, quantum domain underlie the nonlocal events we experience at the human level. He invokes the concept of entanglement as a bridging hypothesis uniting the small- and large-scale happenings. Quantum entanglement and quantum nonlocality are indeed potent possibilities that may eventually explain our nonlocal experiences, but only further research will tell.

Meanwhile, there is a gathering tide of opinion favoring these approaches. As physicist Chris Clarke, of the University of Southampton, says, “On one hand, Mind is inherently non-local. On the other, the world is governed by a quantum physics that is inherently non-local. This is no accident, but a precise correspondence … [Mind and the world are] aspects of the same thing … The way ahead, I believe, has to place mind first as the key aspect of the universe … We have to start exploring how we can talk about mind in terms of a quantum picture … Only then will we be able to make a genuine bridge between physics and physiology.”

Whatever their explanation proves to be, the experiments documenting premonitions are real. They must be reckoned with. And when scientists muster the courage to face this evidence unflinchingly, the greatest superstition of our age—the notion that the brain generates consciousness or is identical with it—will topple.

In its place will arise a nonlocal picture of the mind. This view will affirm that consciousness is fundamental, omnipresent and eternal—a model that is as cordial to premonitions as the materialistic, brain-based view is hostile.

Copyright © 2013 by Larry Dossey. All Right Reserved.


On Torsion & A Theory of Everything

Post image for Torsion: The Key to the Theory of Everything

A Brief Overview of Torsion: The Key to a Theory of Everything—Including Consciousness?

Copyright © Brendan D. Murphy,  March, 2012

Putting a Twist on Things

The first research generally credited with the discovery of this “fifth force”—torsion—was that done in the late 1800s by Russian professor N.P. Myshkin.1 Einstein’s colleague Dr. Eli Cartan first termed this force “torsion” in 1913 in reference to its twisting movement through the fabric of space-time. In the 1950s pioneering Russian scientist Dr. N.A. Kozyrev (1908–1983) conclusively proved the existence of this energy, demonstrating that, like time, it flows in a sacred geometric spiral,2 as I detail in The Grand Illusion (TGI).

Russian scientists are reported to have written around 10,000 papers on the subject in the 10990’s alone.

orsion essentially means “twisting” or “spiralling.” Thus, this is the action of torsion waves as they propagate through space—and it is also the action of static torsion fields. Torsion fields are generated by spin and/or by angular momentum; any object or particle that spins produces torsion waves and possesses its own unique torsion field. According to some, torsion waves are the missing link in the search for a final “theory of everything (TOE),” a unified field theory, or GUT (grand unified theory).Currently they cannot be reconciled with the established concept of a quantum wave as it stands in physical theory.

Since torsion fields influence spin states, one object’s torsion field can be changed by the influence or application of an external torsion field. “As a result of such an influence, the new configuration of the torsion field will be fixed as a metastable state (as a polarized state) and will remain intact even after the source of the external torsion field is moved to another area of space. Thus torsion fields of certain spatial configuration can be ‘recorded’ on any physical or biological object.” 3 (emphasis added)

This realisation of the unique properties of torsion fields immediately suggests compelling links to various psi or parapsychological phenomena (such as the “charging” of an object with intent, or the informational recording of events in “inert matter” so that it can later be “read” by a psychometrist).

Kozyrev, Time and Torsion

Dr. Kozyrev discovered that human thoughts and feelings generate torsion waves. Such a discovery opens the door for a “physical” understanding of consciousness, and a much more complete model of reality. Kozyrev was able to measure physical effects that were caused by sudden psychological changes (including his own), proving that consciousness is related to vibrations within a fluid-like “aetheric” medium.4 In his ingenious experiments he detected minute changes in systems, that mimicked psychokinesis using an unknown form of hard-to-detect energy—time itself, he believed—which he pointed out united all existence in a unified field, connecting all things in real-time (thus facilitating nonlocality or “action at a distance”). Changes in mechanical systems produced subtle alterations in the density of time/the aetheric medium, as did gravity, thunderstorms, changes in season, and changes in matter density. Likewise, Kozyrev found that consciousness also affected time density. Emotional thoughts produced larger effects on his equipment than did intellectual thoughts. “The measurement systems are especially strongly affected by a person in emotional excitement,” Kozyrev’s colleague V.V. Nasonov told an audience at Moscow University in 1985. “For instance, [Kozyrev] was able to deflect a torsion balance pointer by 40° or more when reading his favourite ‘Faust.’ Meanwhile, as a rule, mathematical calculations did not cause pointer deflections.”5 Thus, Kozyrev believed that our thoughts could change the density of time. He believed that in mastering the ability to make time dense at will we would be able to make telepathy occur at will. Under his conception, all psi phenomena would be stripped of their paranormal trappings and accepted into the world of natural phenomena.6

Storing Intention and Information in Water

Virtually all anomalous warping effects or other “law-defying” effects caused in matter by various technologies can be replicated by the human mind, as I make a point of illustrating at some length in TGI. The imprint of human intention into the ice crystals of Dr. Masaru Emoto is just one example that might be explained by torsion waves radiated by human thoughts and emotions. Dankachov showed in 1984 that water is “a good medium for storing static torsion fields.7 The torsion fields created by human intention are simply memorized in water, especially water containing ionized salts.8 At a sub-microscopic level the internal structure of water has changed causing the resultant differences in the ice crystals. At Sound Energy Research scientists created torsion field imprints in distilled water using scalar (torsion) wave technologies. The result is structured water called scalar wave–structured water™. They sent samples to Emoto who froze them and studied the crystals, which formed hexagonal structures like those created by human consciousness.9 The scalar/torsion technology creates the same effects as mental intent. The inference to be drawn is compelling: perhaps torsion waves—which are bereft of any electromagnetic (EM) properties or mass—are “carrier waves” of consciousness.

According to Dr. W.E. Davis, the psionic device patented and used for years now by the De La Warr laboratories in England is a variation of the Heironymus machine that is capable of registering photographs of the L(ife) field surrounding an object. In 1958 Dr. De La Warr took a picture of a drop of ordinary tap water. The results were “normal”: there was a central point with seven bright, thin lines radiating from it. Then he asked a priest to bless the water before he took another picture. This time, the “brilliant lines of force” formed the shape of a cross!10 This phenomenon is somewhat akin to the use of kind words to metamorphose the shape of water molecules as documented in Emoto’s research. The spin states of the water’s atoms were presumably altered by the priest’s own torsion field as he imprinted his intention by blessing the water.

Nonlocal Interactions and Torsion in Nature

The fact that plants are able to respond to human intention in measurable ways could perhaps be related to the torsion waves created by human consciousness and broadcast to the plant, which senses them and responds accordingly, on instinct. After all, if we can observe the Phi ratio (signifying the presence of this spiraling torsion energy) virtually everywhere we look in nature and realize that plants, humans, and animals are all created out of this mathematically embedded matrix or “implicate order,” it is not so surprising that plants can detect human thoughts (which generate torsion waves), as Cleve Backster has shown with his breakthrough studies (starting in the 1960s) on human-plant telepathic interactions. Backster documents, among other things, that when he was away from his office, the plants in his office space actually produced immediate measurable electrical reactions to his intent to return—even when he was nowhere near the building. By connecting a plant’s leaves to a polygraph machine, Backster found that his office plants not only responded stressfully to silent mental threats by a human to harm them, but also to the deaths of nearby organisms, such as brine shrimp and even bacterial colonies.11

Russian scientist Dr. Victor Grebennikov is an entomologist who discovered what he called the “cavity structural effect” (CSE) created by bee nests. The particular shape of the nests caused them to harness and throw off large amounts of torsion waves that were detectable to human hands even when the nest was shielded with thick metal. These torsion waves act as a guide to trees, who detect them and guide their roots around the bees’ structures rather than growing into them, as well as offering a form of nonlocal “communication” between the bees themselves.12 The torsion harnessed by the CSE can also alter the passing of time, as Grebennikov showed, replicating Kozyrev’s findings.13

Dr. Frank Brown, a pioneer in the study of interactions between magnetism and living organisms, found that when bean seeds were placed near one another there was an interaction between them that could not be explained in orthodox terms: it seemed to be due to the presence of a biofield or spin force.14 That the biofield was involved is supported by Brown’s observation of a connection between rotation and bean seed interaction. He found that the beans interacted more strongly when they were rotated counter-clockwise than when they were rotated clockwise. (The biofield is usually observed as a clockwise force as seen from above, though it reportedly flows in one direction for men and the opposite for women.) Brown also reported on the research of R.I. Jones, who reported in 1960 that plant growth could be altered by uniform daily rotation. Clockwise rotation depressed growth, suggesting the presence of a spin force around all plants might be a factor.15

Pyramids as Torsion Conductors and Generators

Russian and Ukranian research into pyramids has yielded some very interesting results regarding torsion waves. The Russians found that the pyramid shape naturally harnesses torsion waves, as if amplifying them. It has been experimentally established that objects that feature the Golden Section (which expresses Phi) can be described as passive torsion generators.16 The team of Prof. A.G. Antonov from the Russian R&D Institute of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynecology tested the effects of a solution of 40% glucose in distilled water after it had been stored in the pyramid. By administering only 1 ml of the glucose to 20 different prematurely born infant patients with compromised immune systems, their levels of health were seen to increase rapidly up to practically normal values. The researchers furthermore discovered that the glucose was not necessary, as the same effect could be produced by simply using 1 ml of ordinary water that had been stored in the pyramid.17 Another study in Russia showed that mice drinking torsion-affected pyramid water had significantly fewer tumors develop than the mice drinking the ordinary water.18 (Elsewhere, Russian scientists have reported that mice subjected to static torsion fields showed significantly enhanced immune function.19) Blunted razor blades also sharpen again as the crystalline structure is regenerated by the harnessed energy.20 These are just a few of the many effects observed and verified by large numbers of qualified scientists. The best and most up-to-date review of the incredible effects produced by pyramids as they harness torsion fields is provided by Wilcock in The Source Field Investigations (Dutton, 2011).

Some time around 1980, out-of-body explorer Robert Monroe was driving past his old home in Westchester County, New York—the site of his first out-of-body experiences. As Monroe recalled, a psychologist friend who was with him in the car took one look at the house, turned, and smiled, as he noted that the roof of the house formed a “perfect pyramid.” “You were living in a pyramid. That did it!”21 The ancient pyramids, in particular the Great Pyramid at Giza, served multiple esoteric functions such as facilitating OBEs, as in a shamanic initiation-type ritual.22 Pyramid placement at certain node points on the planetary grid suggests that they act to harness the planet’s life-enhancing energies, and perhaps stabilize the grid itself. They are not gigantic tombs for dead pharaohs, that much is certain, but that is a topic beyond the scope of this article. Wilcock explains that any cone-shaped or cylindrical object will harness and focus the torsion fields spiraling out of the Earth; since this energy is fundamentally intelligent, harnessing it not only enhances one’s physical health, but one’s “spiritual consciousness” also.23

Torsion waves have the potential to initiate a fundamental paradigm shift. They are bridging the gap between mind and matter in a way that was never thought possible, and in the process they are validating the perspectives of mystics and occultists. Various researchers consider torsion as being synonymous or identical with consciousness itself. Since torsion waves are a fundamental and ubiquitous feature of the cosmos we can see how consciousness is also; consciousness has a real and detectable force which can act on the environment both locally and remotely. Suddenly the notion of something like psychokinesis is not so “paranormal.” Sol Luckman refers to torsion energy as “intelligent light or intention energy emanating from higher dimensions” and notes that it is distinguishable from both gravity and electromagnetic radiation.24 Torsion fields are spin fields within gravity, and as such, they can be used to mitigate and nullify gravity, an idea I explore in relation to bodily levitation in TGI.

Torsion, Psi, and the Brain

Every electromagnetic or electrostatic field is accompanied by or contains a torsion component,25 meaning that all organic and inorganic objects have their own signature torsion fields,26 though no organic substances can be used to shield torsion fields—unlike aluminum, for instance, which can. (Kozyrev stated that aluminum was an excellent reflector of time.27) If the principle of complementarity operates at all scales (as we have good reason to believe) then, as Yurth points out, that means that wherever we find local/linear effects, we must also find non-linear/nonlocal effects.28 Relatedly, Kozyrev discovered that torsion waves can move through space at tremendous speeds—billions of times the speed of light—meaning they propagate in the future and past as well,29 so tapping into them could facilitate retro- or precognition, psi experiences involving glimpses of the past or future in other words. If you think of torsion waves as connections not through space, but in the realm of time (or time-space), then real-time (instantaneous) telepathic communication between people separated by thousands of miles may become slightly more comprehensible—and less “unusual.” Such phenomena ordinarily looks to us as “acausal” (since there is no discernible exchange of EM energy or force between the two parties in space-time), but torsion waves may facilitate nonlocal correlations through “causal nonlocality.”

According to A. Akimov, torsion fields coupled with the standard electric, magnetic, and gravity fields should offer a unified field theory that will extend the realm of science to include the effects of consciousness. It’s interesting to note that certain effects on the spin structure of matter caused by torsion waves could only be reproduced by psychics. Furthermore, according to Russian physicist G.I. Shipov, torsion fields transmit information without transmitting EM energy.30 “From the late 80s till the late 90s…It was established that torsion generators allow us not only to replicate all ‘phenomena’ [such as PK and ESP] demonstrated by so called ‘psychics,’ but they also are able to demonstrate effects that were never demonstrated by any ‘psychic.’”31

The Akimov group have represented the brain as a non-magnetic spin torsion system where it is simultaneously a torsion transmitter and receiver.32 Iona Miller wrote in an online article that “[s]tanding scalar [torsion] waves can be coupled at exactly 180° out of phase in a resonant cavity to create zero sums through scalar resonance. There is just such a resonant cavity in the brain, between the pituitary and pineal glands. These waves of potential co-modulate each other and ‘lock or zip together’ as a zero-vector system [scalar] wave. This allows for crosstalk or translation between dimensions.”33

Interestingly, the pineal gland is believed to produce the entheogen DMT, known informally as the “spirit molecule.” This molecule is known to facilitate intuitive functioning and mystical experiences. Perhaps it acts as an antenna for and amplifier of hyperdimensional scalar/torsion waves? If a resonance can be set up within the cavity between the pineal and pituitary glands, does this stimulate higher levels of DMT production, allowing us to access different levels of reality? Rick Strassman’s fascinating experiments with DMT on volunteers showed that intravenously administered DMT produces extremely real other-dimensional experiences, replete with interactions with non-human intelligences—some resembling “aliens” referenced in the UFO and abduction literature.34

According to veteran independent scientist Lt. Col. Tom Bearden, “all mind operations are time-like, i.e., they are comprised as scalar EM photon functions and scalar EM wave functions. Thus the mind is a very special kind of electromagnetic system, existing in the time domain.”35 In other words, the mind does not have its origins in the material world, but in the nonlocal “implicate” realm or torsion/scalar field. “A sizable list of attributes has been experimentally identified which demonstrates that the torsion field operates holographically, without regard to time and distance.”36 So too then does consciousness. Pertinently, in torsion fields, similar charges attract, and opposite charges repulse. It has long been a metaphysical tenet that in terms of human experience “like attracts like.” If torsion is a carrier wave for consciousness this is a profound point. As a nonlocally interconnective force unifying us all in real-time, torsion is likely to be the missing link that facilitates Jung’s “acausal” sychronistic phenomena (“meaningful coincidences”), and our ability to remotely draw certain people and events to us. This could prove to be the ultimate scientific support for the notion that “what you put out is what you get back,” (the “law of attraction”) though this axiom appears to be an oversimplification.

In terms of psi phenomena such as remote viewing and other functions of consciousness that allow us to access information from anywhere in the cosmos, the significance of torsion fields should now be obvious. Indirect support comes from the employment of gravimetric devices by various scientists who have used torsion fields to measure and record distant astrophysical events and processes in real time. Their results support the notion that information at any single place in the cosmos can be instantaneously obtained at any other location.37 Likewise, by generating a torsion field (which can be done by counter-rotating two magnets or even other objects in close proximity), information can be “pumped” into it to instantly manifest elsewhere in the universe—no matter how large the distance between the sender and receiver. “The information ‘packets’ we insert into the non-linear field [implicate order] at our local address becomes accessible anywhere in the hologram at any other address simply by matching the field effects that created the torsion field in the original locale.”38 In 2001, Dr. Hartmut Müller used the spin/torsion fields within gravity to make a real-time telephone call from the Toezler Medientage building in Germany to Saint Petersburg in Russia—no EM fields were used. The communication was therefore instantaneous, without the time lag normal EM communication systems present.39


Psi and consciousness researchers have typically discussed only electromagnetism in relation to the operations of the mind, when all along the much harder to detect “fifth force” (known as torsion since 1913) may have been the most important aspect of bio-energy in accounting for the anomalous functions of consciousness. Physicist Michael Talbot wrote in his early 1990s classic The Holographic Universe that legitimate psychics had sensed the presence of another non-EM force or energy that composed part of the human aura or bio-field, but could not quite pinpoint what it was. Thanks to pioneers like Myshkin, Cartan, Kozyrev, and many more, we may surmise that the other “mysterious” non-EM component of the human bio-field spoken of by those psychics was torsion.

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