Rejecting Rockefeller Germ Theory once and for all
by Jon Rappoport March 25, 2021
Note: In a number of articles, I’ve offered compelling evidence that the deaths attributed to COVID-19 can be explained without reference to a virus. Furthermore, whatever merits “alternative treatments” may have, I see no convincing evidence their action has anything to do with “neutralizing a virus.”
The entire tragic, criminal, murderous, stupid, farcical COVID fraud is based on a hundred years of Rockefeller medicine—a pharmaceutical tyranny in which the enduring headline is:
ONE DISEASE, ONE GERM.
That’s the motto engraved on the gate of the medical cartel.
—Thousands of so-called separate diseases, each caused by an individual germ.
“Kill each germ with a toxic drug, prevent each germ with a toxic vaccine.”
In the absence of those hundred years of false science and propaganda, COVID-19 promotion would have gone over like a bad joke. A few sour laughs, and then nothing, except people going on with their lives.
The overall health of an individual human being has to do with factors entirely unrelated to “one disease, one germ.”
As I quoted, for example, at the end of a recent article—
“The combined death rate from scarlet fever, diphtheria, whooping cough and measles among children up to fifteen shows that nearly 90 percent of the total decline in mortality between 1860 and 1965 had occurred before the introduction of antibiotics and widespread immunization. In part, this recession may be attributed to improved housing and to a decrease in the virulence of micro-organisms, but by far the most important factor was a higher host-resistance due to better nutrition.” Ivan Illich, Medical Nemesis, Bantam Books, 1977
And Robert F Kennedy, Jr.: “After extensively studying a century of recorded data, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Johns Hopkins researchers concluded: ‘Thus vaccinations does not account for the impressive declines in mortality from infectious diseases seen in the first half of the twentieth century’.”
“Similarly, in 1977, Boston University epidemiologists (and husband and wife) John and Sonja McKinlay published their seminal work in the Millbank Memorial Fund Quarterly on the role that vaccines (and other medical interventions) played in the massive 74% decline in mortality seen in the twentieth century: ‘The Questionable Contribution of Medical Measures to the Decline of Mortality in the United States in the Twentieth Century’.”
“In this article, which was formerly required reading in U.S. medical schools, the McKinlays pointed out that 92.3% of the mortality rate decline happened between 1900 and 1950, before most vaccines existed, and that all medical measures, including antibiotics and surgeries, ‘appear to have contributed little to the overall decline in mortality in the United States since about 1900 — having in many instances been introduced several decades after a marked decline had already set in and having no detectable influence in most instances’.”
How the immune system (if it is a system) actually operates is beyond current medical hypotheses.
“T-cells, B-cells, neutrophils, monocytes, natural killer cells, proteins,” are welded into a breathless story about a military machine that attacks germ invaders. Push-pull. Search and destroy.
The notion that THIS is what creates health is fatuous.
Positive vitality is what keeps us healthy.
A few factors of positive vitality are on the tyrannical COVID list of what-should-be-squashed: financial survival; open mingling of friends and family; people looking (unmasked) at people; open communication without fear of censorship.
Nutrition and basic sanitation are key vitality factors, of course.
And then we have Purpose in Life: where are people pouring their creative energies?
Obviously, freedom from harmful medical treatment is necessary for vitality to flourish.
Suppression of LIFE, in order to stop a purported germ, is institutionalized death.
Modern medicine is sensationally exposed in a review I’ve mentioned dozens of time over the past 10 years: Authored by the late famous public health doctor at Johns Hopkins, Barbara Starfield, it is titled, “Is US Health Really the Best in the World?” It was published in the Journal of the American Medical Association on July 26, 2000.
It found that, every year in the US, the medical system kills 225,000 people.
Per decade, the death toll would come to 2.25 million people.
You won’t find that in CDC reports.
In 2009, I interviewed Dr. Starfield. I asked her whether the federal government had undertaken a major effort to remedy medically caused death in America, and whether she had been sought to consult with the government in such an effort.
The Facts:Dr. Asseem Malhotra, a well-known Doctor in Britain had some choice words to say in front of the European Parliment about modern-day medical education and overall knowledge doctors possess. He’s one of many who continues to emerge and speak out.
Reflect On:Why do doctors continue to learn nothing about nutrition? It seems they are trained to prescribe medicine and do not question what they are prescribing. They risk losing their jobs by speaking out and educating themselves.
Dr. Asseem Malhotra is known as one of the most influential cardiologists in Britain and a world-leading expert in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of heart disease. Currently, he is leading a huge campaign against excess sugar consumption. What also makes him unique is something he recently admitted took him decades to figure out: that our entire medical system, one of the main ‘protectors’ of the human race, is completely corrupt. He now believes that medical education is a state of “complete system failure,” causing “an epidemic of misinformed doctors.” He also stated that honest doctors can no longer practice honest medicine, and that there is also a growing epidemic of patients who are being harmed.
There is no denying that to some extent, medicine and doctors have done a lot of good and saved a lot of lives. However, an over-reliance on doctors for our health and well-being has spawned a serious problem, one that should be in the spotlight and immediately fixed.
The Need To Think For Ourselves
We all have to realize that society has been manufactured in a way where we simply give up our own mind to someone else, who has been given theirs by someone else. We lack the ability to think for ourselves because, from birth, we are programmed to think a certain way by somebody else.
This is something important for us to change, and by ‘us’ I not only mean patients; it should be a priority for all who practice medicine. And there are signs that it has started changing. Why? Because there is a shift in consciousness taking place. People within all societal systems (health, financial, education, government, etc.) are waking up, and starting to investigate what they have been taught. Rather than simply believing the promotional literature, more are pursuing self-education (which Dr. Malhotra stressed was the only real form of education).
Malhotra pointed out seven ‘sins’ that contribute to the lack of knowledge that not just doctors but everyone has, including patients, regarding modern day ‘medicine.’ He made these comments at a recent European Parliament meeting.
Other Prominent Doctors Speak Out
He’s not the only one to speak up about this issue. In fact, it seems that those who represent doctors have been speaking out about this for a long time. Dr. Marcia Angell, a physician and longtime Editor-in-Chief of the New England Medical Journal (NEMJ), considered one of the most prestigious peer-reviewed medical journals in the world, has said that,
“It is simply no longer possible to believe much of the clinical research that is published, or to rely on the judgment of trusted physicians or authoritative medical guidelines. I take no pleasure in this conclusion, which I reached slowly and reluctantly over my two decades as an editor of The New England Journal of Medicine.” (source)
Then there is Dr. Richard Horton, the current Editor-in-Chief of another prestigious peer-reviewed medical journal, TheLancet, who says,“The case against science is straightforward: much of the scientific literature, perhaps half, may simply be untrue.” (source)
There are many examples of statements and documented evidence to choose from, which is why doctors like Malhotra are speaking out. You can watch his full talk below the tweet from November 21st, 2017.
(NaturalHealth365) Aluminum, which performs no identifiable function in the human body, is not a nutrient. Yet, most of us consume this neurotoxic substance – or inhale its fumes, or apply it to our skin – on a daily basis.
According to Analytical Research Labs, a whopping 80 percent of people tested have excessively high aluminum levels – a disturbing statistic, given that metal toxicities are associated with a wide range of chronic disease conditions.
We are living in the “age of aluminum”
Aluminum – the third most prevalent element on the planet – already exists naturally, in the environment – but, just to be clear – has ZERO benefit inside the human body. This cheaply-produced metal has literally dozens of commercial uses – leading concerned natural health experts and environmentalists to dub the present day the “age of aluminum.”
Sadly, aluminum is used in cookware, soda cans and packaging for processed foods – not to mention: aluminum foil. An ingredient in many over-the-counter antacids such as Rolaids, aluminum is also found in various cosmetics and hygiene products, particularly antiperspirants.
Disturbingly, exposure to aluminum begins almost immediately after birth – aluminum is used as an adjuvant in vaccines given to newborns. In fact, the number of aluminum-containing vaccines children receive has quadrupled over the past 40 years, with children typically receiving 17 aluminum-spiked injections in the first 18 months of life.
For one thing, it accumulates in the kidneys, brains, lungs, liver and thyroid, causing oxidative stress and attacking the central nervous system. According to Dr. Edward Group, aluminum competes with calcium for absorption, and can affect the mineralization of bone and slow growth in infants. It also creates inflammation in the brain, thereby contributing to the development of neurodegenerative diseases.
Aluminum toxicity has been linked with a staggering list of specific diseases, dysfunctions and conditions.
A recent study shows that aluminum exposure causes brain oxidation and inflammation – while increasing amounts of the beta-amyloid proteins linked with Alzheimer’s disease. The University School of Medicine in Belgrade reports that drinking water with a high aluminum concentration is associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer’s.
But the damage doesn’t stop with Alzheimer’s disease. Aluminum’s ability to inhibit the uptake of neurotransmitters such as dopamine, norepinephrine and 5-hydroxytryptamine contributes to mood disorders, anxiety, insomnia and cognitive deficits.
And, aluminum is associated with anemia – an unsurprising finding, as aluminum has been shown to interfere with iron metabolism. It is also linked to other blood disorders, such as hemolysis, leukocytosis and porphyria, as well as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or ALS. In addition, exposure to this unwanted substance can cause an increase in cavities, as it interferes with bone calcification and competes with fluoride.
And, finally, it is associated with kidney and liver dysfunction due to fatty degeneration.
How do I find out if I have aluminum toxicity?
Early symptoms of aluminum toxicity include headaches, depression, abnormal heartbeat, frequent colds, dry skin and heartburn, colic and other gastrointestinal problems. Later symptoms of toxicity can include paralytic muscular conditions, memory loss and confusion.
Integrative healthcare providers note that blood aluminum levels fail to reflect the total body burden, so accurately measuring aluminum toxicity can be tricky. If you think you have aluminum toxicity, it would be wise to undergo a hair tissue mineral analysis. This non-invasive test is considered the most reliable way to detect aluminum levels. However, look for a laboratory that doesn’t wash the hair before testing, as this can nullify results.
Note: if you are undergoing nutritional therapy for heavy metal toxicity, expect to see a rise in aluminum levels in the hair when it is re-tested – a result of aluminum and other metals being flushed from storage. It’s also extremely important that you ensure the safe elimination of toxins from the body to avoid harm.
Safe and natural detoxification is essential for optimal health
The first step in detoxifying is preventing additional exposure to aluminum. Avoid the use of aluminum cookware and cans, and carefully check the labels of health and beauty products – especially antacids. Be on the lookout for aluminum-free alternatives – for example, the” Tums” brand of antacid contains no aluminum.
You should also avoid processed foods – which are often packaged using aluminum – and opt for sea salt over table salt. As for drinking water – a water purification system is a MUST and/or drink spring water – from a trusted source.
Natural substances that can help you detoxify include high-dose vitamin C, chlorella and cilantro. Your healthcare provider may advise melatonin and 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan as well. Just make sure that your doctor understands the best ways to detoxify the body safely.
Garlic, onion and other sulfur-rich foods help to manufacture glutathione, the body’s master antioxidant and detoxifier. N-acetyl-cysteine also boosts glutathione levels, while binding to and detoxifying all heavy metals.
And don’t forget about curcumin, a flavonoid found in turmeric. This natural antioxidant has been shown to have a protective effect against aluminum-induced damage, modulating the extent of oxidative stress and combating the beta-amyloid plaques associated with Alzheimer’s disease.
Although aluminum and aluminum compounds sometimes seem ever-present, it is possible to reduce or even reverse toxicity from aluminum and other unwanted metals, thereby preventing disease, protecting health and help to extend the quality of your life.
Did you know that over 80 percent of the garlic sold worldwide comes from China? In fact, a large amount of garlic we consume here in America is from China. The US imported 138 million pounds last year. Most consumers think that their garlic was grown in California, the “Garlic Capital of the World,” but in reality it was shipped from China. Even “organic” garlic is often from China, where organic certification methods can not be trusted.
Chinese garlic is bleached. According to Henry Bell of the Australian Garlic Industry Association, garlic from China is sprayed with chemicals to stop sprouting, to whiten garlic, and to kill insects and plant matter. He also reports that garlic is grown in untreated sewage, “Bell also calls into question some growing practices in China. “I know for a fact that some garlic growers over there use raw human sewage to fertilize their crops, and I don’t believe the Australian quarantine regulations are strict enough in terms of bacteria testing on imported produce,” he says. “I also challenge the effectiveness of the Chinese methyl bromide fumigation processes.” (http://www.theage.com.au/news/epicure/freshe…) .
Chinese garlic is heavily fumigated with methyl bromide to get rid of any bugs. Methyl bromide is a very toxic hazard. Exposure to high concentrations can cause damage to the respiratory and central nervous systems, even death. According to the UN it is 60 times more damaging than chlorine and is the base of CFCs (Chlorofluorocarbons).
Chinese garlic is also contaminated with lead, sulfites and other unsafe compounds.
Chinese garlic may be treated with growth inhibitors and subjected to cold temperatures, as well as over-storage. Over storage is particularly problematic as levels of allicin, one of the major constituents in garlic responsible for its health benefits, start to decline over time.
Fortunately, you can easily spot the difference between California-grown fresh garlic and imported garlic.
Here’s how to spot a California-grown bulb:
American garlic has some of the roots left on the bottom.
Eating locally means eating what’s in season. This spring, consider adding some of the following superfoods, many of which you may never have heard of before: morel mushrooms, fiddlehead ferns, cherimoya, sorrel, stinging nettles, purslane and wild leeks
Most of these are only available for a short amount of time, and now’s the time to start looking for them
Morel mushrooms are packed with immune-boosting, disease-preventing vitamin D. Fiddleheads are picked from immature, uncoiled ostrich ferns, and have a flavor reminiscent of asparagus
Cherimoyas contain approximately 60 percent of the daily recommended dose of vitamin C and a third of your vitamin B6 needs, while nettles provide healthy amounts of vitamin K and calcium
One cup of sorrel provides more than your daily requirement of vitamins A and C, along with high amounts of potassium and iron; purslane is the omega-3 powerhouse of the plant kingdom
By Dr. Mercola
Eating locally grown foods comes with a bounty of benefits, from fresher foods to saving both money and the environment. One 2007 study from the University of Alberta, Canada, determined that the transportation alone of organic produce actually causes an environmental impact large enough to cancel out many of its benefits.1
If you look, you’ll find that most of the organic fruit and vegetables in your local grocery store come from much farther away than your conventional produce. Fresh produce in most regions of the U.S. actually travel between 1,500 to 2,000 miles on the road. That’s even higher than processed foods, which are shipped an average of 1,346 miles.2 Eating locally grown foods helps eliminate a substantial amount of the carbon footprint associated with food transportation.
Eating locally automatically means eating what’s in season. This spring, consider adding some of the following superfoods,3 many of which you may never have heard of before. Most of these are only available for a short amount of time, and now’s the time to start looking for them.
No. 1: Morel Mushrooms
Morel mushrooms, the tops of which resemble small shower loofahs, are packed with immune-boosting, disease-preventing vitamin D. Its taste has been described as umami, or savory. Rarely cultivated, morel mushrooms are typically wild-harvested and picking the mushrooms is a popular tradition for many.
That said, avoid picking mushrooms in the wild unless you are absolutely sure you know what you’re picking. There are a number of toxic mushrooms, including a species called “false morels,” and it’s easy to get them confused unless you have a lot of experience and know what to look for.
As noted in a recent study,4 “Morels have been in use in traditional medicine for centuries, due to their health-related benefits, and current research demonstrated their anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory bioactivities, in addition to immunostimulatory and antitumor properties.”
Most of the health benefits have been attributed to polysaccharides, along with a number of phytochemicals, primarily phenolic compounds, tocopherols, ascorbic acid and vitamin D. Morel mushrooms are an excellent addition cooked with any side dish and go great with all kinds of meat and fish. Many people enjoy eating them as a side dish on their own, gently sautéed for five to 10 minutes with a pat of butter. Never eat morel mushrooms raw, as they contain trace amounts of a toxin that make some people ill.
No. 2: Fiddlehead Ferns
Chances are you’ve never heard of fiddlehead ferns5,6 unless you’re a frequent visitor of farmers markets and specialty health food stores. As the name implies, the small curly discs are picked from immature, uncoiled ostrich ferns. The taste has been likened to that of asparagus, but with bit more crunch and bitterness. Others say they taste like a mix of asparagus, spinach and broccoli all in one.
High in antioxidants (twice the amount of blueberries) and plant-based omega-3, fiddlehead ferns are a potent anti-inflammatory food.7 They also contain vitamins A and C, both of which are important for healthy vision and immune function. Iron and phosphorous aid red blood cell production and are important for healthy formation of cell membranes and bone, while potassium supports heart health and electrolyte and muscle functions.
Fiddleheads are commonly picked in Maine and Canada, but can often be found in health food stores. Their season is quite brief — two to three weeks at the most. To ensure quality, look for specimens that have tightly coiled heads with stems about 2 inches in length. If picking your own, make sure you know how to identify ostrich ferns, as they are commonly confused with bracken fern — a species known to cause cancer in lab animals.
Also, fiddleheads may cause gastrointestinal upset when consumed raw, so light cooking, just as you would asparagus, is recommended. They can also be pickled for longer shelf life. For instructions, see this spicy pickled fiddleheads’ recipe by The Spruce.8
The following video will help you properly identify edible fiddleheads from the ostrich fern. Consider adding them to dishes that normally call for asparagus. Many recipes suggest eating them steamed or boiled with hollandaise sauce, cooked then chilled and topped with plain mayo, or lightly sautéed and tossed with some butter, lemon, vinegar and Parmesan cheese.
No. 3: Cherimoya
This heart-shaped “dragon-scaled” tropical fruit has a sweet, buttery inside. Select specimens that are hard and green. As avocados, cherimoyas ripen quickly on the counter. Once the skin turns a bronze color and feels soft to the touch, it’s ready to eat. Simply peel and slice. Their flavor has been likened to a combination of banana, papaya and pineapple. Pureed, they can also be added to smoothies.
A single fruit contains approximately 60 percent of the daily recommended dose of vitamin C and a third of your vitamin B6 needs. In Mexico, the fruit has traditionally been used to ease anxiety, thanks to the presence of GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), which has mild antidepressive effects.
It’s also high in fiber, iron and niacin, and contain powerful compounds shown to combat cancer, malaria and human parasites. Cherimoya provides high amounts of potassium that help control heart rate and blood pressure. Furthermore, it contains more minerals weight per weight than a lot of more common fruits, including apples.
No. 4: Sorrel
Sorrel, also known as spinach dock or narrow-leaved dock, is a perennial leafy herb cultivated around the world. Packed with health benefits and a tangy, lemony flavor, it adds a bit of zing to just about any salad or dish, including creamy soups.
One cup of sorrel provides more than your daily requirement of vitamins A and C, along with high amounts of potassium and iron. Keep in mind that sorrel contains oxalic acid, which is contraindicated for those struggling with or prone to oxalate kidney stones. For most people, small quantities are completely safe and provide valuable health benefits. According to Organic Facts:9
“The health benefits of sorrel include its ability to improve eyesight, slow the aging process, reduce skin infections, strengthen the immune system, and improve digestion. It also builds strong bones, increases circulation, increases energy levels, helps prevent cancer, lowers blood pressure, increases appetite, protects against diabetes, strengthens heart health and improves kidney health.”
No. 5: Stinging Nettles
While typically considered a pesky and painful weed, stinging nettles10 have unique health benefits. (On a side note, should you have them growing in your yard, they’re actually a sign of rich, healthy soil.) Just make sure you use gloves during handling until they’ve been cooked, to avoid a painful rash.
Once blanched or sautéed, they can be safely consumed, providing healthy amounts of vitamin K and calcium. Traditionally, nettles have been valued for its blood purifying properties, and can also be made into tea, said to ease congestion and soothe allergies and asthma.
Nettle tea may also boost milk production if you’re nursing, and helps stimulate your digestive glands, including your intestines, liver, pancreas and gallbladder. To learn more about the health benefits of stinging nettles and the various ways you can use it (including instructions for making nettle tea), see “Nettle: The Stinging Weed That Can Help You Detoxify.”
No. 6: Purslane
Purslane11 (also called duckweed, fatweed, pigweed, pusley, verdolaga, ma chi xian in Chinese, munyeroo or wild portulaca), is the omega-3 powerhouse of the vegetation kingdom, and there’s a high probability it’s growing in your yard right now. According to Mother Earth News, it’s the most reported weed species in the world.12
Purslane looks very much like a miniature jade plant, with fleshy succulent leaves and reddish stems. The stems grow flat to the ground and radiate outward from a single taproot, sometimes forming large, flat circular mats up to 16 inches across. In about mid-July, it develops tiny yellow flowers about one-quarter inch in diameter.
Seeds of purslane are extremely tough, some remaining viable in the soil for 40 years, and it can grow in almost anything, from fertile garden loam to the most arid desert soil — even in your rock driveway. Just be very careful not to confuse purslane with spurge, because they can look similar, and spurge will make you sick. The following video shows how to tell them apart.
Purslane has a stellar omega-3 fatty acid profile, compared to other vegetables, containing anywhere from 300 to 400 milligrams (mg) of omega-3 per cup. It also contains six times more vitamin E than spinach, seven times more beta carotene than carrots, providing about 44 percent of your daily vitamin A needs per 100 grams,13 25 mg of vitamin C per cup, plus magnesium, calcium, iron, riboflavin, potassium, phosphorous and manganese.
Purslane can be eaten either raw or cooked. If you’re planning on eating raw purslane, make sure no pesticides or herbicides have been used nearby. If you’ve been spraying Roundup in your yard, never eat weeds collected from the area. Also avoid them if your neighbor has used Roundup in their yard, as the chemicals can easily drift across property lines.
As a precaution, wash the leaves and stems thoroughly before consuming. Typically, people eat the young purslane leaves and stems to avoid the tougher parts of the plant. For cooked purslane, there are numerous ways to incorporate this herb in your favorite dishes. You can boil it in water for 10 minutes and drain, or simply add it to other recipes to give the dish an added crunch.
No. 7: Ramps
Ramps is a type of wild leek, featuring small white bulbs with hairy roots. While resembling green onions in appearance, their flavor is more akin to garlic. If you’re lucky enough to find them, be sure to get some. Ramps are exceedingly scarce as they’re a slow grower, and are only in season for a few weeks in spring.
Look for specimens that are firm, with bright green leaves. Don’t buy or use them if you notice brown spots or slimy areas. Unwashed and wrapped in a plastic bag, ramps can be refrigerated for up to a week. Ramps are a good source of vitamins A and C, selenium and chromium, the latter of which helps stabilize blood sugar. As for how to use them in your cooking, Organic Authority suggests:14
“[U]se ramps as you would scallions, green onions or leeks. Anything that would pair well with garlic or leeks will love the ramp. Slice them thinly and use sparingly, and also handle them gently, adding them at the end of the cooking process. Think simple to allow ramps to shine: Scrambled into eggs, garnished alongside seafood, mixed into big bowls of pasta, or oven roasted or grilled to perfection.”
How to Find Locally-Grown Food That Is in Season
When you eat locally grown foods, the contents of your shopping bag inevitably change with each passing season. In other words, adjusting what you eat to what’s in season becomes an inescapable fact if you’re going to eat locally-grown foods, and if you keep this in mind, it can become a pleasurable part of your culinary experimentation. Here are some tips for tracking down locally-grown foods that are in season:
If you’re lucky enough to have a local farmers market, that’s the way to go. For a listing of national farmers markets and local food directories, see the USDA’s website. Another great resource is www.localharvest.org.
Another good route for finding local food is to subscribe to a community supported agriculture program (CSA). Some are seasonal while others offer year-round programs. Once you subscribe, many will drop affordable, high quality locally-grown produce right at your door step. For a comprehensive list of CSA’s and a host of other sustainable agriculture programs, check out my Sustainable Agriculture page.
Local farmers are perhaps your best source for seasonal produce. You can search for local farms on www.localharvest.org.
Shop at your local natural food store or health co-op, as many of them get their produce from local farmers.
If everything else fails, shop at your locally owned grocers rather than large chain supermarkets. Many small private grocers also supply produce from local sources.
Eight Signs of High-Quality Food
Last but not least, here are some general tips on what to look for when trying to determine the healthiest foods possible, no matter where you shop. You’ll want to look for foods that are:
Grown without pesticides and chemical fertilizers (organic foods fit this description, but so do some nonorganic foods). If harvesting edible weeds or plants from your garden, make sure no pesticides or herbicides have been applied in the area
Food for thought might just have a whole new meaning to it and in a more literal sense. We all hold a widely held conception that fish helps our brains develop and this study shows exactly that, but there might be a new super brain food on the block that could help your brain work better and it is readily accessible everywhere. Pickles.
However, not all pickles can have such a positive impact on the brain. A study done by the college of William and Mary in Virginia revealed that naturally fermented foods such as dilled pickles can provide you with a huge boost of serotonin which is a chemical responsible for managing our moods.
For people who have had an experience with depression or anxiety disorder, pickles could be just the thing to boost serotonin levels in your body like what most pharmaceutical antidepressants aim to do.
Gut and Anxiety
According to Dr Michael Gershon, author of The Second Brain, the gut is actually somewhat like our body’s second brain having as many neurotransmitters as the brain! However, unlike our brain that controls what we feel and how we make decisions, the gut makes decisions from swallowing, digesting to nutrient absorption and elimination.
What’s also fascinating about our gut is that it communicates with our main brain with very profound results as researchers are finding more evidence that problems in the gastrointestinal system send signals to our brain triggering a bout of mood changes which explains why people with bowel disorders suffer from depression and anxiety much easier.
Pickles And Euphoria
The GABA neurotransmitter is a bunch of neurons in our brain that controls motor movements, vision and they also regulate anxiety. And by putting a pickle into your mouth, it actually does a lot to your gut as well as your brain. Fermented foods such as dilled pickles have healthy bacteria in them called probiotics and there is much research done on the relationship between anxiety disorders and probiotics.
In one research done by the University of College Cork, Ireland, rats were used to study the potential benefits of introducing probiotics into their systems during a stressful situation such as maternal separation. Researchers studied that probiotic treatment is able to regulate their behavior and their abnormal immune response. Results like this fully support the hypothesis that probiotics have the potential to change our moods as well as strengthening our immune systems.
Researchers studied that probiotic treatment is able to regulate their behavior and their abnormal immune response. Results like this fully support the hypothesis that probiotics have the potential to change our moods as well as strengthening our immune systems.
To further prove the point that pickles actually does make people less stressed out, a study done by Maryland University studied the dietary habits of 700 students and found out that people who had fermented products in their diets suffered less social anxiety.
Top 7 diseases, disorders, and syndromes brought on and EXACERBATED by GMOs, antibiotics, and a slew of toxic vaccinations
Tuesday, July 12, 2016 by: S. D. Wells
(NaturalNews) The majority of diseases and disorders that exist in the world today are either of the contagious, infectious kind or the type that are brought on by consuming carcinogens and neurotoxins. Regarding the latter and the term “consuming,” we are describing anything toxic in food, beverages, vaccines, or personal care products that find their way into the bloodstream, and thus affect the heart, brain, organs, cells, and central nervous system.
It is also very important to note that infectious diseases are often prevented from being spread and/or beaten down by a normal, functioning immune system, and again, a system that is not heavily burdened by noxious chemicals that are “consumed.” Moreover, most humans are NOT born with autism, or cancer, or irritable bowels, or central nervous system (CNS) disorders, or malfunctioning cleansing organs. Yet many MDs label health problems as “genetic” (which they are), even though they are NOT inherited. There is a difference.
It has been proven time and time again that the majority of today’s diseases and disorders are not only preventable, but curable with a plant-based diet and by filtering common chemicals from our daily intake.
So, then, where do we start? Good question. The onslaught of toxins in American food is relentless. It includes very dangerous chemical-based pesticides, including insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, algaecides, and even fertilizers that make the food toxic, from beginning to end–meaning from seed, stem, and leaf to fruit and vegetable, and finally onto the breakfast, lunch and dinner tables. Even most baby food and infant formula sold in America is toxic. Remember, nothing kills good gut bacteria and natural immunity faster than consuming chemical-based pesticides and herbicides, including glyphosate.
Then there’s the water. More than 80% of all municipal taps in America are infested with sodium fluoride, another noxious chemical derived as a by-product of China’s immense chemical industrial complex and exported to America for dripping into the taps, all while being touted as “good for your teeth” – an insidious LIE purported by propaganda ever since WWII.
Speaking of the second world war, that’s when American medicine took a sharp turn for the worse. Nazi scientists were hired to manufacture chemicals to be used as food additives (that cause allergies), food preservatives (that warp and kill brain cells), pharmaceuticals (that don’t help anything), vaccine adjuvants (carriers and preservatives that destroy immunity and disrupt the CNS), and chemotherapy (that makes cancer tumors recede, only to come back with a vengeance).
Lastly, there’s the most popular prescription of all times, that MDs dish out like candy at the front doors on Halloween–and that’s antibiotics. Not only are antibiotics killers of good bacteria and immunity in general, but they are prescribed across the board for viral infections that have symptoms of bacterial infections, because at first, most doctors can’t even tell the difference. Plus, as you probably do NOT know, there are antibiotics in many vaccines. Oh yes, there are! They’re used during production to prevent the growth of bacteria during storage of the vaccine. Oops.
So, the first and last line of defense against all of this mayhem is to STOP consuming chemicals. This requires a strict regimen of organic (or clean locally grown) food, filtered water (or natural spring water), and clean, natural medicine (never cooked up or altered in a laboratory).
Dissipate, dissolve, and disappear your health problems by ending chemical consumption
Remember, the majority of diseases, disorders, and syndromes popular today in America are all brought on and EXACERBATED by GMOs, antibiotics, and a slew of toxic vaccinations. Here are the top 7 aggravators and instigators of health problems for the masses:
#1. Asperger’s Syndrome: Biomarkers of abnormal immune function are associated with behavior impairments–core features of Asperger syndrome, a disorder considered on the “high functioning” end of the autism spectrum, but still exhibiting restricted range of interests and usually repetitive behaviors. Flu shots are a major cause of Asperger’s due to the high mercury content (50,000 parts per million).
#2. Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Stems mainly from the destruction of good gut bacteria and annihilation of enzymes by pesticides and vaccines.
#3. Autism Spectrum Disorder: Science and gene replacement studies in mice point right at synaptic dysfunction as a cause of autism spectrum disorder, specifically synaptic pathways–those associated with cell adhesion. There is strong evidence ASD arises early in development, but AFTER birth, hence the name autism spectrum “development” disorder. Many parents first become aware of autistic symptoms immediately following routine combination vaccinations with flu shots.
#4. Cancer: hardly any forms of cancer are contagious or inherited. Most cancer forms after birth and those cells multiply when fed chemicals. Period. Stop consuming chemicals and the cancer cells are destroyed by healthy cells. Look into natural remedies like turmeric, cannabis, garlic, aloe, and hemp seed oil.
#5. Auto-immune Disorder: vaccines are injected into muscle tissue, conjuring unnatural, hyper-immune responses in babies which leads directly to the immune system attacking itself.
#6. Anxiety, Depression, and Central Nervous System Disorders: Continuous chemical consumption can contribute to or worsen these conditions.
#7. Alzheimer’s, Strokes, and Dementia: the three major causes of dementia and strokes are coagulating saturated fat in the blood, aluminum in the blood, and lack of oxygen to the brain. Aluminum is commonly found in antacids, vaccines and flu shots.
To suffer most chronic health problems, you not only have to consume chemicals, but you have to continually consume chemicals. There’s a cumulative effect that no MDs or oncologists EVER talk about, and that’s how they stay in business and make so much damn money. End the onslaught of chemical consumption and watch your health issues dissipate, dissolve, and disappear. Remember, the top 7 diseases, disorders, and syndromes are all brought on and EXACERBATED by GMOs, antibiotics, and a slew of toxic vaccinations, including flu shots. Get smart. Eat clean and research natural medicine. The rewards are endless!
Another epidemic is sweeping across the world. According to experts, there are as many as 30 million people suffering from a form of thyroid disorder in the United States alone – and half of them are undiagnosed. That is a staggering 12% of the nation’s total population.
Worldwide, approximately 430 million people are estimated to have a thyroid disorder.
Strangely, there is little concrete information about this problem worldwide since many patients and their doctors mistake the common symptoms for something else.
One serious cause of thyroid dysfunction is iodine deficiency. We get very little of it in our modern diet but iodine is a nutrient obtainable from food. It may seem overly simplistic to use food for thyroid health but it works and could be the answer in your particular case to getting this important gland functioning normally again.
10 Symptoms of Thyroid Malfunction
1. Fatigue: Persistent exhaustion no matter how much sleep you get.
2. Poor Sleep Quality: Being unable to sleep or wanting to sleep all the time.
3. Mood Swings: Feelings of sadness or anxiety.
4. Appetite Changes: Changes to food preferences or altered taste.
5. Brain Fog: Inability to concentrate or difficulty with simple cognition.
6 .Bowel Irregularity: Bloating, gas, constipation, or diarrhea.
7. Temperature Sensitivity: You persistently feel too hot or too cold.
8. Chronic Pain: Aches in joints or muscles for no particular reason.
9. Reproductive Issues: Infertility, miscarriages, or premature births.
10. Menstrual Changes: An increase or decrease in cramps, flow, or length of periods.
What Does Your Thyroid Do for You?
The thyroid hormones thyroxine (T-4) and triiodothyronine (T-3) produced by your thyroid gland – a butterfly shaped gland in your lower throat – are responsible for managing your metabolism, body temperature, and blood pressure. Though this part of the endocrine system is small, it is mighty. It literally effects all of you because every cell and organ in your body use thyroid hormones.
Hyperthyroidism (less common) is the term used when your thyroid produces too much hormones. It is also referred to as an overactive thyroid. This condition can result in unexplained weight loss, feeling jittery or anxious, inability to relax, lack of focus, rapid heart rate, fatigue, marked increase to appetite, deterioration of nails, skin, and hair, heart disease, irritability, sleep irregularity, and intolerance to heat.
Hypothyroidism (most common) is the term used when your thyroid produces too little hormones. It is also referred to as an underactive or sluggish thyroid. You may notice no symptoms initially but they tend to worsen as time goes by. Deficiency in these essential hormones lead to feelings of fatigue, depression, obesity, pain in joints, muscle weakness, deterioration of hair, skin, and nails, heart disease, poor memory and focus, and intolerance to cold.
Hashimoto’s Disease is an autoimmune condition. Your immune system malfunctions and sends out antibodies to attack thyroid tissue. Over time, the thyroid is beaten down and unable to function properly. The majority of patients with hypothyroidism test positive for these antibodies. It is important to keep your immune system strong and lower body-wide inflammation to prevent these antibodies from destroying your thyroid.
Your thyroid is stimulated by signals from your brain (hypothalamus) and your pituitary gland tells the thyroid gland to either produce hormones or to hold back. When the signals are blocked or false, it can result in serious repercussions throughout your system.
-Graves is a genetic autoimmune disease that stimulates thyroid hormone production.
-Plummer’s disease is benign lumps that stimulate thyroid hormone production.
-Pregnancy can trigger thyroid dysfunction.
-Thyroiditis is inflammation that triggers excess thyroid hormone to flood the blood.
-Physical, mental, or emotional stress may affect how your thyroid functions.
-Environmental toxins are thought to play a role in dysfunction of the thyroid.
This condition can affect adults, children, and infants. Newborns tested and treated early respond well and the practice has prevented poor mental development.
There are synthetic hormones available (thyroid drugs are the fourth highest selling in the United States) that can eventually get your thyroid back on track. However, most patients have to have a thyroid that no longer functions for the synthetic replacements to work.
Preventing the destruction of your thyroid in the first place is a far better solution.
5 Best Foods for Thyroid Health
1. Seaweed and seafood (scallops, shrimp, sardines, salmon, and tuna)
Currently, there is no cure for autoimmune diseases such as Hashimoto’s that cause extensive damage to the thyroid and result in conditions such as hypothyroidism. As with most autoimmune conditions, it is crucial to pay close attention to diet and lifestyle habits. It may not reverse thyroid damage completely but it will slow the advance and ease symptoms.
Good choices for your thyroid benefits your entire body. All of your systems are connected and they depend on each other to function properly. Choosing the right foods for thyroid health are also good choices for your heart, brain, and gut. All of you will feel the difference.
With nutrition and wellness information omnipresent, it is important that we follow our inner guide and discover what works for us as individuals.
Forget about the Glycemic Index
We are so saturated with information. With stimulus. With advice. With authoritative edicts on health. A chain of gurus have come before me seeking to guide patients into the light of wellness. People are blinded by it, however. They feel confused, skeptical, and disenfranchised. And then they default to consensus and conformity around FDA standards of disease-care. There is a better way.
It involves awakening your inner guru. Getting in touch with your own inner compass.
This is necessary because there is no one just like you out there. No one has walked your path, accumulated your exposures. Grown and changed in response in quite the same way.
Modern medicine doesn’t acknowledge the vital importance of biochemical individuality. About how we are a unique collective of organisms, an ecology within that is connected to an environment without like a snowflake in a winter sky.
So, it only stands to reason that we would interact with our environments uniquely, and support ourselves through nature in a personal way. Nutrition is, perhaps, our most intimate dance with the living ecosystem of this planet.
Weston A. Price tried to tell us about individualized diets. Francis Pottenger tried to tell us about individualized diets. Dr. Nick Gonzalez tried to tell us about individualized diet. They were, in many ways, speaking a Truth that we weren’t quite ready to receive.
This is because we have been programmed, for decades to believe in an automated universe – one that could be explained neatly through scientific cause and effect – and one that interfaced with our robotic bodies in predictable ways. In this model, nature is “mostly stupid” as Alan Watts would say, in that it could be easily mastered and put in its place of subservience. Germs are tedious annoyances out to get us. Diseases are mistakes. Medications and vaccines are applied to one and all. And food is caloric fuel for our body machines.
When you look at food as part of our relationship with the living world beyond our skin, you understand that it is information, energetic, and complex in ways that we don’t have mechanisms to understand. This is why reductionist concepts like the “glycemic index” have always struck me as a misguided construct.
Now we have a brilliant study, perhaps one of the first of its kind, that decimates this false flag of nutrition consciousness. Published in Cell, an Israeli group of researchers followed 800 people with a prescribed diet for one week, assessing biological parameters from blood sugar to their microbiota. What they uncovered was a clear signal of Truth: the same foods affect different people differently!
Even obese, diabetic patients following formal dietary recommendations for a “healthy diet” found surprising information on the effects of foods such as tomatoes on their blood sugar. Of course, we know that there is more to the benefits of a diet than its benevolent relationship to blood sugar. We know that microbiota have a meaningful role in the metabolism and impact of foods on the body, and that food can directly impact the microbiota, enhancing strains required for its digestion.
We also know that the autonomic nervous system and associated individualized differences in pancreatic innervation can dictate whether one person thrives on a high carb (whole food) diet and another tanks on it. I’ll never forget the feeling of shattered nutrition dogma when Dr. Gonzalez discussed with me a patient of his whose insulin-dependent diabetes had resolved on a prescribed high carb vegetarian diet complete with multiple glasses of carrot juice daily. (We will be publishing this case soon!)
“Measuring such a large cohort without any prejudice really enlightened us on how inaccurate we all were about one of the most basic concepts of our existence, which is what we eat and how we integrate nutrition into our daily life.”
Because nutrition is one of the most basic concepts, our confusion is emblematic of how far we have come from intuitive living. This is why, the most profound healing involves a transformation of consciousness, a reclaiming of agency, a connectedness to the inner and out communities we thrive with, and a relationship to intuition.
I ask my patients, after 30 days of a whole foods, organic diet, to begin to observe their preferences for pastured red meat, fruit, and leafy greens. This observation requires mindfulness around eating and a daily practice of meditation (even a couple of minutes!) to clear the clutter so that you can actually feel what is best rather than reacting from your head. Because you are your own best healer.
Thawed food can be safely returned to your freezer provided it was thawed safely in the first place
Refreezing thawed food may lead to changes in flavor or texture, but its safety will not be compromised
While consuming food fresh is generally best, many frozen foods retain a majority of their nutrients
By Dr. Mercola
Whether or not thawed, if previously frozen foods can be refrozen is one of the most popular questions posed to the US Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) food-safety hotline.
It’s also one of the most widely circulated myths that refreezing food is dangerous.
While putting a thawed piece of steak or brick of cheese back into the freezer might lead to some changes in taste or texture, it’s perfectly safe and poses no risks to your health. There are a few caveats to consider, however.
It’s Safe to Refreeze Thawed Food
Thawed food can be safely returned to your freezer provided it was thawed safely in the first place. The worst way to thaw frozen food is to let it sit out on your kitchen counter. Tina Hanes, a registered dietitian with the USDA’s FSIS, told The New York Times:1
“… [B]acteria like it warm, like we do, and multiply rapidly at room temperature. Thawing on the counter is not safe, period. You should never do that.”
In fact, it’s said the greatest factor impacting whether your food is “safe” isn’t whether it’s been previously frozen but rather is related to how much time it spends in the temperature “danger zone” (between 40 to 120 degrees F).2
In addition to thawing on the counter, thawing frozen meat, poultry, or seafood by running warm water over it is also risky from a food-safety standpoint. If you need to thaw meat or poultry quickly, it can be run with cold water over it, or submersed in cold water, changing the water every 30 minutes until it’s thawed.3
If you use this latter method for thawing, it should be cooked immediately – not refrozen or put back in the fridge. The USDA further advises:4
“Once food is thawed in the refrigerator, it is safe to refreeze it without cooking, although there may be a loss of quality due to the moisture lost through thawing. After cooking raw foods which were previously frozen, it is safe to freeze the cooked foods.
If previously cooked foods are thawed in the refrigerator, you may refreeze the unused portion. Freeze leftovers within 3 to 4 days. Do not refreeze any foods left outside the refrigerator longer than 2 hours; 1 hour in temperatures above 90 °F.
If you purchase previously frozen meat, poultry or fish at a retail store, you can refreeze if it has been handled properly.”
Do Frozen Foods Retain Their Nutrients?
It’s generally best to consume foods fresh, as soon after harvest as possible. However, frozen foods aren’t a bad alternative when this isn’t possible. In some ways, frozen foods may even be “fresher” than foods at your supermarket.
This is because produce is typically frozen soon after harvest, whereas fresh produce may be shipped thousands of miles before it actually reaches your local store (with nutrients degrading the entire way).
Research suggests fresh vegetables may lose up to 45 percent of their nutrients from the time they’re harvested to the time they’re purchased at a grocery store.5 On the other hand, research suggests frozen foods may contain comparable nutrients as fresh foods, and at times be even more nutritious. For instance:6
Frozen broccoli had more vitamin C, lutein, and beta-carotene but lower levels of polyphenols (some frozen broccoli has also been found to lack the ability to produce cancer-fighting sulforaphane7)
Frozen carrots had three times more lutein and twice as much beta-carotene, as well as more vitamin C and polyphenols
Frozen sprouts had higher levels of all measured nutrients
Frozen blueberries, green beans, raspberries, and pears also had higher levels of vitamin C and polyphenols
Separate research on frozen versus fresh carrots, broccoli, spinach, strawberries, and more concluded “overall, the vitamin content of the frozen commodities was comparable to and occasionally higher than that of their fresh counterparts.”8
The exception in this case was beta-carotene, which declined significantly in some of the frozen produce.
There’s still no question that the most nutrient-rich food will be fresh, provided you can eat in within a short time from harvest (i.e. produce you either grow yourself or purchase from a local farm or farmer’s market). However, frozen foods are still fairly nutritious and worthy of consumption if locally grown fresh foods are not available.
Freezing Your Food Can Help Cut Down on Food Waste
The other benefit to freezing your food (or re-freezing it) is cutting down on food waste. Organic waste, such as that from spoiled food, is actually the second highest component of landfills in the US. Organic landfill waste has increased by 50 percent per capita since 1974.9
A report from the National Resources Defense Council (NRDC) revealed that 40 percent of food in the US goes uneaten, which amounts to a waste of more than 20 pounds of food per person, every month. This amounts to upwards of $2,275 in annual losses for the average US household of four.10 This isn’t simply a matter of the food itself, as with this waste comes:
$165 billion that is essentially “thrown out”
25 percent of freshwater usage, wasted
Huge amounts of unnecessary chemicals, energy, and land use, also wasted
Rotting food in landfills, which accounts for nearly 25 percent of US methane emissions
“… [F]ood saved by reducing losses by just 15 percent could feed more than 25 million Americans every year at a time when one in six Americans lack a secure supply of food to their tables.”
In all, it’s estimated US families throw out about 25 percent of the food and beverages they buy. In the UK, about two-thirds of household food waste is due to food spoiling before it is used. And shockingly, more fruits and vegetables are wasted in the US food system than are actually consumed (52 percent are wasted versus 48 percent consumed)!12
So if you find you’ve brought home more perishable food than you can consume, wrap it up tight and put it in your freezer (with the exception of the foods that follow… ).
Certain Foods Do Not Freeze Well
Most foods can be frozen successfully, provide you store them correctly in your freezer. However, freezing does alter or degrade the quality of some items. Spices and seasonings are particularly vulnerable.
Condition After Thawing
Cabbage,* celery, cress, cucumbers,* endive, lettuce, parsley, and radishes
As raw salad
Limp, water-logged, quickly develops oxidized color, aroma, and flavor
Irish potatoes, baked or boiled
In soups, salads, sauces, or with butter
Soft, crumbly, water-logged, and mealy
Cooked macaroni, spaghetti, or rice
When frozen alone for later use
Mushy, tastes warmed over
Egg whites, cooked
In salads, creamed foods, sandwiches, sauces, gravy, or desserts
Soft, tough, rubbery, and spongy
Soft, tough, rubbery, and spongy
Icings made from egg whites
Cream or custard fillings
Pies, baked goods
Separates, watery, and lumpy
For casseroles or gravies
May curdle or separate
As topping, in salads
Cheese or crumb toppings
Mayonnaise or salad dressing
On sandwiches (not in salads)
In salads or desserts
May soak bread
All except French fried potatoes and onion rings
Lose crispness, become soggy
*Cucumbers and cabbage can be frozen as marinated products such as “freezer slaw” or “freezer pickles.” These do not have the same texture as regular slaw or pickles.
According to the National Center for Home Food Preservation, some herbs, such as onion and paprika, change flavor when frozen, while others tend to get stronger (this applies to pepper, cloves, garlic, and green pepper).
Frozen curry may develop a “musty off-flavor,” while salt may lose its flavor and even increase rancidity of foods containing fat. If you know a food will be going in the freezer (such as a big batch of tomato sauce), your best bet is to season it lightly prior to freezing and then add your finishing touches after it’s been thawed and re-heated.13The National Center for Home Food Preservation has also posted this useful chart of foods that generally do not freeze well:14
How to Best Freeze 5 Common Foods
By taking a few moments to properly wrap and prepare your food for the freezer, you can extend its freezer shelf life and ensure a higher-quality product once thawed. The National Center for Home Food Preservation has a comprehensive guide on how to best freeze common foods.15 Examples are as follows:16
Butter: Mold into the shape of your choice (squares, patties, etc.), wrap tightly in aluminum foil or freezer paper, and then seal in moisture-vapor resistant containers. Recommended freezer storage time is six to nine months.
Cheese: Hard or semi-hard cheese should be cut into 1.5 to one-pound sizes the packaged in moisture-vapor resistant material. It may be crumbly and mealy when thawed but will still be flavorful. Cream cheese, cottage cheese, and ricotta cheese generally do not freeze well.
Blueberries: Do not wash blueberries. Pack them dry into containers, leaving headspace; this allows the food to expand without breaking the packaging. You can also freeze them flat on a tray then pack them into containers once frozen.
Meat (beef, lamp, and pork): Package the meat in freezer paper or wrap. Store-bought meats should be over-wrapped with freezer paper (unless it is wrapped in a newer heavy-duty film, which needs no overwrap).
Tomatoes: Wash the tomatoes and dip them in boiling water for 30 seconds to loosen skins. Peel and core the tomatoes, then pack into containers, using one-inch headspace (the tomatoes can be frozen whole or in pieces). Once thawed, the tomatoes will no longer be solid so plan to use them in cooking.
More Freezer Pointers
If you’re wondering how long food will keep in your freezer, it’s not forever. Fruits and vegetables will last longest, about eight to 12 months, while ground meat maintains its quality for about three or four months. Fish ranges from three to six months while poultry will keep for six to nine months.
Keep in mind that food will still be safe to consume after these storage times, but it may not be as high in quality (i.e. its texture or flavor may change). Additional pointers to help you successfully store food in the freezer include the following from The National Center for Home Food Preservation:17
Freeze foods at 0°F or lower. To facilitate more rapid freezing, set the temperature control at -10°F or lower about 24 hours in advance.
Freeze foods as soon as they are packed and sealed.
Do not overload your freezer with unfrozen food. Add only the amount that will freeze within 24 hours, which is usually 2 to 3 pounds of food per cubic foot of storage space. Overloading slows down the freezing rate, and foods that freeze too slowly may lose quality.
Place packages in contact with refrigerated surfaces in the coldest part of the freezer.
Leave a little space between packages so air can circulate freely. Then, when the food is frozen, store the packages close together.