THe Future Volcanoes of New Hampshire

New England Might Not Be Volcano-Free Forever

Central America VOlcanic Eruptions

New eruptions at Costa Rica’s Turrialba and Guatemala’s Fuego

New eruptions at Costa Rica's Turrialba and Guatemala's Fuego

A new eruption of Costa Rica’s Turrialba volcano took place at 03:37 UTC on June 25 (22:15 on June 24, local time). Dense fog is preventing estimation of volcanic cloud height. At the same time, volcanic ash produced by the fresh eruption of Guatemala’s Fuego volcano is reaching 4.9 km (16 000 feet) above sea level.

Tremors under Turrialba started increasing at 02:05 UTC and reached maximum at 02:40 UTC. This seismicity was accompanied by the occasional passive emission of ash. At the time, the direction of the wind was WNW.

A strong smell of sulfur was reported in Escazú (San Jose) and San Isidro De Heredia (Heredia), OVISICORI reported.

At 03:37 UTC (21:37 local time), the tremors further increased, RSN said. They were accompanied by the constant emission of ash. This time, winds direction was SW, Dr. Mauricio M. Mora said.

At the time of the RSN’s last report (05:00 UTC), ash was still coming out of the volcano.

This thermal image was recorded between 03:35 UTC and 03:51 UTC on June 25:

Meanwhile, Guatemala’s Fuego volcano is also erupting. At 04:45 UTC on June 25, volcanic ash cloud was near 4.9 km (16 000 feet) above sea level, the Washington VAAC reported. INSIVUMEH reported movement toward the WSW-SW, extending roughly 18.5 km (11.5 miles) from the summit.

Volcanic ash is seen in multi-spectral imagery, but it is difficult to see its complete view.

In a special bulletin issued at 04:40 UTC (22:40 local time), INSIVUMEH said the activity at the volcano is increasing. “Over the last 22 hours, Fuego volcano observatory reported increased number of explosions, constant rumblings, and strong shock waves. The seismic station FG3 recorded increased tremor and constant explosions.”

Two lava flows were observed on the southeast flank flowing into Las Lajas and El Jute drainages. They were about 2 km (1.2 miles) in length.

“At the time, this eruption is effusive in nature, however, there is a chance it could increase in the coming hours, with the possibility of pyroclastic flows, mainly on the southeast and southern flank,” INSIVUMEH said.

Geological summary

Turrialba

Turrialba, the easternmost of Costa Rica’s Holocene volcanoes, is a large vegetated basaltic-to-dacitic stratovolcano located across a broad saddle NE of Irazú volcano overlooking the city of Cartago. The massive 3340-m-high Turrialba is exceeded in height only by Irazú, covers an area of 500 sq km, and is one of Costa Rica’s most voluminous volcanoes.

Three well-defined craters occur at the upper SW end of a broad 800 x 2200 m summit depression that is breached to the NE. Most activity originated from the summit vent complex, but two pyroclastic cones are located on the SW flank. Five major explosive eruptions have occurred during the past 3500 years. A series of explosive eruptions during the 19th century were sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows. Fumarolic activity continues at the central and SW summit craters. (GVP)

Fuego

Volcán Fuego, one of Central America’s most active volcanoes, is one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala’s former capital, Antigua. The scarp of an older edifice, Meseta, lies between 3 763 m (12 345.8 feet high Fuego and its twin volcano to the north, Acatenango. Construction of Meseta dates back to about 230 000 years and continued until the late Pleistocene or early Holocene. The collapse of Meseta may have produced the massive Escuintla debris-avalanche deposit, which extends about 50 km (31 miles) onto the Pacific coastal plain.

The growth of the modern Fuego volcano followed, continuing the southward migration of volcanism that began at Acatenango. In contrast to the mostly andesitic Acatenango, eruptions at Fuego have become more mafic with time, and most historical activity has produced basaltic rocks. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded since the onset of the Spanish era in 1524 ,and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows. (GVP)

Featured image credit: RSN

from:    http://thewatchers.adorraeli.com/2016/06/25/new-eruptions-at-costa-rica-turrialba-and-guatemala-fuego-volcano/

Rare Nevada Earthquake

12/11/2015 — Earthquake strikes Volcanoes next to famous AREA 51 base in Nevada

A rare M3.1 earthquake has struck the volcanoes next to the famous “AREA 51” base in Southern Nevada.

three volcanoes struck in 12 hours time dec 11 2015
Above: Past 12 hours of earthquakes (up to 930am CT December 11 2015) , showing M2.7 and greater in the United States. The epicenters of the events show the only locations to experience any noteworthy movement are three dormant volcanic fields.

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Do not confuse this with a “UFO crash” (lol!) or a bombing range test — the depth of the earthquake was at over 8km / 5 miles below the surface.

This movement at the ancient volcanic complex next to Area 51 is part of a much larger seismic event underway (currently) on the West coast of the United States.

area 51 earthquake volcano dec 11 2015
Above: Google Earth search of the USGS earthquake coordinates shows the M3.1 earthquake striking between the long dormant AREA 51 volcanic fields at a depth of over 5 miles.

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In addition to the long dormant (extinct) volcanoes next to Area 51 showing activity, we see that the ONLY other locations to have M3.0+ activity are other volcanic locations to the North and South.

The swarm of earthquakes to the North struck Challis Idaho, which is the Westernmost portion of the Yellowstone Magma chamber, and a location where a man was almost killed in geothermal activity a few months ago.

Challis, ID is also the location where the USGS went to install new monitoring equipment after a M5.0+ earthquake struck the location 2 years ago.

4.9 yellowstone idaho earthquake april 12 2014

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To the South of the Area 51 earthquake location , Cerro Prieto volcano showed up with an earthquake swarm as well, topping out at M3.1 in power.

This dormant volcano was forecast to show movement in the most recent earthquake forecast video issued on December 8, 2015.

cerro prieto earthquake forecast dec 11 2015

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See the forecast calling for Cerro Prieto volcano to show movement here:

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Overall, this seismic unrest at the dormant volcanoes along the West coast was expected.

The locations which are showing movement were all named out in the above forecast video, literally called out each location by name , Central Idaho (Challis), California border (Cerro Prieto), and Western Nevada near the California border.

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Information on the AREA 51 earthquake from the USGS:

http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eventpage/nn00522233#scientific_origin:nn_nn00522233

from:    http://dutchsinse.com/

Japan Volcano Alert

8/15/2015 — ANOTHER Large earthquake in the West Pacific — M6.7 strikes Soloman Islands — Japan on Volcano ALERT

A large M6.7 earthquake has struck the West Pacific in the Soloman Islands East of Papua New Guinea.

This events marks the THIRD large earthquake to strike the Soloman Islands this week.

6.7m earthquake papua new guinea soloman islands aug 15 2015

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The Soloman Islands were specifically forecast to see large earthquake activity this week (after several weeks of relative silence).

The earthquake forecast for the Soloman Islands was issued on August 8, 2015 — issued for a 7 day time period to watch the region.

In the past 7 days, three different large earthquakes struck the warned area.  See the full earthquake forecast video here:

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In addition to seeing the large earthquake activity in the Soloman islands, the other area which was warned in the earthquake forecast  (South Japan) is now under alert / evacuations due to thousands of earthquakes near Sakurajima Volcano, with an impending very large eruption now possible.

The nearby Sendai Nuclear power plant is also under serious warning, locals evacuating, and “massive tectonic deformation” currently taking place (August 15):

from:    http://dutchsinse.com/

North American Craton Movement

6/14/2015 — Whole North American Craton moves in 24 hours time + New Madrid earthquake swarm


 

The whole of the North American Craton was displaced over the past 24 hours (up to 845am CDT June 14, 2015).

The graphic below speaks for itself, showing a 4.0M fracking earthquake along the NW edge of the plate in Alberta Canada, followed by earthquakes further South , 50 miles East of Mount Adams + Mount Rainier Volcanoes in Washington State, and at Clear Lake Volcano in Northern California.

In addition to the earthquakes at multiple volcanoes, we see a new swarm has developed at the Oklahoma fracking operations, and a more rare earthquake swarm developing along the New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ).

craton earthquakes june 14 2015a
Past 24 hours of 2.5M+ earthquakes in North America shows the edge of the craton being displaced from the NW to the South + Southeast. Beginning with a 4.0M earthquake, followed by movement to the South at dormant volcanoes, and then further southeast at fracking operations in Oklahoma, then causing craton movement along the New Madrid Seismic Zone.

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In the most recent earthquake forecast, I fully discussed the activity to expect along the craton edge, and explain how the earthquakes are transferring along the “edge” of the unsubducted plate.

The movement seems to be happening in a pattern extending from the Northwest to the Southeast, producing noteworthy earthquakes along the boundaries between older, and younger plate regions.

See the earthquake forecast here:

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Below is a past example of craton movement caused by West coast earthquake activity.

The screenshots below show earthquakes on the West coast preceded midwest earthquake activity by a few days (or less), and eventually caused a New Madrid Seismic Zone Earthquake following the pressure transfer as it passed EASTWARD.

As the pressure transferred East, it released at “weak points” producing earthquakes at dormant Volcanoes along the West coast, also produced activity at the Fracking operations in Colorado + Oklahoma, finally terminating with a single event along the New Madrid Seismic Zone.

This graphic is from May 1, 2015.

california cluster craton earthquakes may 1 2015

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from:    http://dutchsinse.com/

North Pole Earthquake

6/01/2015 — Rare NORTH POLE Earthquake — 5.2 magnitude strikes near new undersea volcano

A very rare, and most likely volcanic related earthquake has struck near the exact NORTH POLE of the planet.

north pole earthquake june 1 2015

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Upon inspection using Google Earth, the earthquake epicenter is located near an undersea volcano which was discovered in 1999.. currently called “UNNAMED” by the USGS.

north pole earthquake june 1 2015a

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This earthquake is listed on the USGS as “North of Svalbard” with NO PICTURE of the North pole, instead they’re showing Europe.

Of course they’re not going to show the North pole, since this would raise everyone’s suspicions about earthquake activity picking up, being that this earthquake was less than 270 miles from the exact geographic polar North of the planet, people might start to ask questions the USGS doesn’t want to answer right now.

Questions might get asked like, “why are you not warning people that there is increased seismic unrest taking place, and that people should be preparing for larger coming movement?!

usgs north pole fail earthquake june 1 2015

This is an extremely rare event, and it follows multiple other rare seismic events over the past 1-2 weeks.

Over the past week alone, we saw a large unexpected blast from Shindake volcano off the coast of Japan, we saw a large unexpected blast from Wolf Volcano in the Galapagos, there was a large 8.5M earthquake (7.8 magnitude revised) which struck at a very deep level, a large 6.8M earthquake struck Alaska, another large earthquake struck off the coast of Oregon, also there was movement along the New Madrid seismic zone, and multiple dormant volcanoes showed earthquake activity in the United States.

 

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Information on this North Pole Earthquake from the USGS:

Magnitude / uncertainty 5.2 mb± 0.0
Location / uncertainty 86.123°N 31.961°E± 8.7 km
Depth / uncertainty 10.0 km± 1.9
Origin Time
Number of Stations
Number of Phases 78
Minimum Distance 846.80 km (7.61°)
Travel Time Residual 1.19 sec
Azimuthal Gap 26°
FE Region North of Svalbard (641)

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from:    http://dutchsinse.com/page/3/

Currently 40 Volcanoes Erupting

40 Volcanoes Are Erupting Right Now, And 34 Of Them Are Along The Ring Of Fire

By Michael Snyder

You may not have noticed, but our planet is becoming increasingly unstable.  According to Volcano Discovery, 40 volcanoes around the globe are erupting right now, and only 6 of them are not along the Ring of Fire.  If that sounds like a very high number to you, that is because it is a very high number.

As I have written about previously, there were a total of 3,542 volcanic eruptions during the entire 20th century.  When you divide that number by 100, that gives you an average of about 35 volcanic eruptions per year.  So the number of volcanoes that are erupting right now is well above the 20th century’s average for an entire calendar year.

And of course we are witnessing a tremendous amount of earthquake activity as well.  Nepal was just hit by the worst earthquake that it had seen in 80 years, and scientists are telling us that the Himalayas actually dropped by an astounding 3 feet as a result of that one earthquake.  How much more does our planet have to shake before people start paying attention?

Of course the things that we have been seeing lately are part of a much larger long-term trend.  Seismic activity appears to have been getting stronger over the past few decades, and now things really seem to be accelerating.  The following is how one news source recently summarized what we have been witnessing…

If it seems like earthquakes and erupting volcanoes are happening more frequently, that’s because they are. Looking at global magnitude six (M6) or greater from 1980 to 1989 there was an average of 108.5 earthquakes per year, from 2000 to 2009 the planet averaged 160.9 earthquakes per year: that is a 38.9% increase of M6+ earthquakes in recent years. Unrest also seems to be growing among the world’s super-volcanoes.

Iceland (which is home to some of the most dangerous volcanoes on the planet), Santorini in Greece, Uturuncu in Bolivia, the Yellowstone and Long Valley calderas in the U.S., Laguna del Maule in Chile, Italy’s Campi Flegrei – almost all of the world’s active super-volcanic systems are now exhibiting some signs of inflation, an early indication that pressure is building in these volcanic systems.

But of course most Americans are never going to care about any of this until it starts affecting them personally.

Well, perhaps they should start paying attention to the warning signs.  In recent weeks we have seen significant earthquakes in Michigan, Texas, Mississippi, California, Idaho and Washington.  In addition, it is being reported that pressure is building in dormant volcanoes in Arizona and California.  Just because we have not had a killer earthquake or a large volcanic eruption in the U.S. in recent years does not mean that it will always be that way.  Right now the entire planet appears to be waking up, and this especially seems to be true of the Ring of Fire.

If you are not familiar with the Ring of Fire, just imagine a giant ring that runs around the outer perimeter of the Pacific Ocean.  Approximately 90 percent of all earthquakes and approximately 75 percent of all volcanic eruptions occur within this area, and the entire west coast of North America is considered to be part of the Ring of Fire.

For so long, the west coast has been incredibly blessed not to have experienced a major seismic event.  But scientists tell us that it is only a matter of time.

And right now, just about every other part of the Ring of Fire is shaking violently.

For example, a magnitude 6.8 earthquake just hit Japan on Wednesday

A magnitude-6.8 earthquake that shook northeast Japan on Wednesday was an aftershock of the devastating 2011 quake that triggered a massive tsunami and nuclear power plant meltdown.

“We consider this morning’s earthquake to be an aftershock of the 2011 Northeastern Pacific Earthquake,” said Yohei Hasegawa, an official at the Japanese meteorological agency.

The temblor, which struck just after 6 a.m. local time (5 p.m. ET Tuesday), was sparked by the Pacific tectonic plate “subducting,” or moving under, the main land plate, he added.

Hasegawa warned that more tremors may be on the way.

One Japanese expert is warning that Japan “might have entered an era of great earthquakes and volcanic eruptions,” and considering the immense devastation that the great earthquake and tsunami of 2011 caused, that is a very sobering assessment.

Meanwhile, a series of very strong earthquakes have struck Papua New Guinea recently as well.  The following comes from the Washington Post

A powerful earthquake rattled Papua New Guinea on Thursday, the fourth strong quake to hit the South Pacific island nation in a week. The temblor prompted officials to issue a local tsunami warning, but it was lifted shortly afterward with no reports of damage.

The 7.1-magnitude quake struck about 150 kilometers (94 miles) southwest of the town of Panguna on Bougainville Island at a depth of 23 kilometers (14 miles), the U.S. Geological Survey reported.

Once again, just because things have always been a certain way does not mean that they will always be that way.

As Americans, we are not accustomed to being concerned about major earthquakes and massive volcanic eruptions, but that could soon change in a big way.

The truth is that our planet and our sun are changing in ways that are unpredictable and that our scientists don’t completely understand.

For example, a recent LiveScience article discussed the fact that scientists are deeply puzzled by the fact that the magnetic field of our planet is getting weaker 10 times faster than previously believed…

Scientists already know that magnetic north shifts. Once every few hundred thousand years the magnetic poles flip so that a compass would point south instead of north. While changes in magnetic field strength are part of this normal flipping cycle, data from Swarm have shown the field is starting to weaken faster than in the past. Previously, researchers estimated the field was weakening about 5 percent per century, but the new data revealed the field is actually weakening at 5 percent per decade, or 10 times faster than thought. As such, rather than the full flip occurring in about 2,000 years, as was predicted, the new data suggest it could happen sooner.

And in a previous article, I discussed how one scientist has discovered that activity on the sun is declining at a faster pace “than at any time in the last 9300 years” right now.

I don’t pretend to have all the answers for why these things are happening, but clearly some very unusual things are taking place.

So what do you think?

Do you believe that you know why our planet and our sun are experiencing such dramatic changes?

Please feel free to add to the discussion by posting a comment below…

This article first appeared here at the Economic Collapse Blog.  Michael Snyder is a writer, speaker and activist who writes and edits his own blogs The American Dream and Economic Collapse Blog. Follow him on Twitter here.

 

from:    http://www.activistpost.com/2015/05/40-volcanoes-are-erupting-right-now-and.html

Lava Buries TOwns in Cape Verde Islands

Lava Flows from Fogo in the Cape Verde Islands Bury Two Towns

Monitoring lava flows from the Fogo eruption as they inundate towns within the caldera. Photo by INVOLCAN, used by permission.

It is clear now that the ongoing eruption at Fogo in the Cape Verde Islands is not sparing the towns in the Cha de Caldieras area. There had been some indications that the eruption was slowing and that the town of Portello and Bangaeira could be saved, but as of December 8, it appears that much of the settlement is being overrun by lava flows and the lava continues to flow at close to 300 meters per day.

The eruption regained vigor over the weekend, and the security teams near the volcano had to withdraw to safe distances. Close to 90 percent of the town is now covered by the lava from the new eruption (compare this to the lava during the recent Pahoa crisis in Hawai’i, which received many, many times more coverage in the mainstream media). Right now, close to 1,200 people who had to evacuate likely do not have a home to which to return. Even if their home survived, much of the infrastructure for these communities has been decimated as well. Not surprisingly, online charities have sprung up to help the people permanently displaced by the Fogo eruption.

INVOLCAN filmed some stunning moments of lava flows moving through the towns (see above) and new images from Google Earth show the extent of lava flow inundation on the area (“alacance” on the linked image). Volcanologists following the eruption have said that the current activity could last as long as the 1995 eruption that lasted 56 days, so we could see many more weeks of lava flows within the Fogo caldera, creating a massive humanitarian crisis for such a small, isolated island.

Lava flows from the Fogo eruption covering the towns of Portello and Bangaeira. Photo by INVOLCAN, used by permission.

Icelandic Volcano Update

Holuhraun Eruption in Iceland Still Going Strong

Part of the Holuhraun eruption in Iceland, seen on October 21, 2014. Photo by Milan Nykodym / Flickr.

If you can believe it, we’re now in the fourth month for the Icelandic eruption that started north of the Bárðarbunga caldera in Iceland. The world watched and waited for this eruption after weeks of intense earthquakes, but since the eruption began in late August, we’ve had a nearly constant stream of basaltic magma eruption from the fissures in the Holuhraun lava fields between Bárðarbunga and Askja. This eruption has drifted from the headlines because the eruptive activity itself has been fairly tame — no giant ash plumes to disrupt air travel across Europe, but instead just a steady flow of lava creating a new lava field that covers over 72 square kilometers (~17,700 acres; see below). You can watch some great slow-motion footage of the lava erupting at one of the main vents, taken October 27 by Karl Neusinger – it really shows the constant influx of lava from below that creates the impressive lava flow field. This eruption at Holuhraun now has the distinction of being the largest (by volume) in Iceland since the massive 1783-4 eruption of Laki (although Holuhraun trails Laki by “only” 16 cubic kilometers of lava!)

The Holuhraun lava field (shown in white outline) and the active vent seen by Landsat 8 on November 16, 2014. Image by University of Iceland Institute of Earth Sciences / IMO.

The biggest hazard produced by the eruption so far has been to the air quality in Iceland, where the sulfur dioxide emissions from such a constant and vigorous basaltic eruption has meant that people have been required to stay indoors during much of the summer and fall months on the island nation. Analyses of the rainwater in Iceland over the past months show that as much as 40% of the rain that has fallen is acidic (pH <7) with some rain as low as pH 3.5 (as John Stevenson put it, that’s like grapefruit juice rain).

At Bárðarbunga, the floor of the caldera has continued to subside during this whole eruption without much signs that any eruptions have occurred under the ice that fills the caldera (however, the increased heat from the geothermal system may have melted some of that ice). That, in itself, is interesting and tells us something about how some of these Icelandic calderas can form. Instead of the catastrophic events that many people envision for caldera formation (e.g., Crater Lake), these are slow subsidence events that might takes months to occur. Calderas at other large shield volcanoes have also formed in this fashion, but to be able to measure the motion so precisely is a great scientific bonanza. Large earthquakes are still occurring under the caldera as well, with a M5.4 happening just yesterday (November 18).

The NASA Earth Observatory recently posted an image of the plume from the Holuhraun fissure that shows how the plume itself might interact with the clouds around the eruption. More likely than not, eruption plumes can play a role in cloud formation and distribution around a volcano.

 

from:    http://www.wired.com/2014/11/holuhraun-eruption-in-iceland-still-going-strong/#more-1648431

Volcano Report fr/E. Klemetti

Eruption Update: Copahue, Poás, Sinabung, Kilauea, Holuhraun and Italy

Webcam image of Copahue in Chile, seen on October 16, 2014. A small steam-and-ash plume can be seen along with deposits of fresh, dark grey across on the volcanoes slopes. Image: SERNAGEOMIN.

I apologize for being missing for the last week. The big Geological Society of America meeting is next week in Vancouver BC and not only am I giving a talk and co-chairing a session, but two of my students are presenting posters. Needless to say, things have been busy. My talk centers on what zircon can tell us about the storage conditions and source magmas across the Cascade Range. I have zircon data from four Cascade volcanoes: St. Helens, Hood, South Sister and Lassen, it is a great chance to see how the differences in different parts of the Cascade arc might influence the composition of zircon. My two students are both presenting on their pieces of the Lassen Volcanic Center project, so we’ll be presenting over 800,000 years of zircon data.

Not only that, but I also built a volcano on the Denison campus, so if you missed the video of that, check it out.

So, without further ado, here’s some brief updates around the world of volcanoes:

Iceland

The Holuhraun lava field eruption is now one of the largest continuous eruptions in the past few centuries in Iceland here in its second month of activity. Lava flows and fountains are continuing on the plain between Barðarbunga and Askja while the Barðarbunga caldera itself is still subsiding at a rate of 30-40 cm/day. So far, that subsidence is over 0.75 cubic kilometers of lost volume below the caldera floor and large earthquakes are still occurring near the caldera. The biggest danger from this eruption so far has been the copious sulfur dioxide emissions that continue to cause problems for people in Iceland (depending on the winds). If you want to see some stunning images of the eruption, check these out — especially some of the overhead shots of the lava flows. Also, there might be something lost in translation, but Haraldur Sigurðsson make the odd prediction that the eruption would end on March 4, 2015 — a little too specific for my tastes.

Indonesia

Sinabung has entered back into a phase of more intense dome-collapse pyroclastic flows. This crisis at Sinabung has now lasted well over a year and local residents are running into problems with access to food and water. Not only that, but rainfall around the volcano combined with these eruptions has caused the threat of volcanic mudflows (lahars) to increase dramatically. The loose volcanic ash and debris is easily remobilized when heavy rains occur, creating a concrete-like slurry that can be very damaging and dangerous. On the opposite end of the spectrum, some of the pyroclastic flows have also triggered fires in the regions around Sinabung.

Chile/Argentina

Copahue has had a number of moderate explosive eruptions over the last week that prompted some minor evacuations of herders near the volcano. This is the third bout of explosive activity at the volcano since it became restless at the end of 2012. The alert status at Copahue is Orange and if you want to check out what is up there, use the SERNAGEOMIN webcam.

Costa Rica

Poás experienced a number of explosions as well. These mainly steam-driven events closed off the summit of the volcano to tourists for a few days, but access has been reopened after signs of the volcano settling down again – although the overall unrest continues. Be sure to check out the OVSICORI time-lapse video of the explosion as well.

Hawaii

The lava flow headed down the slopes of Kilauea towards Pahoa is still continuing to crawl forward. Now the flows are moving at ~25 meters/day, but the threat still remains for the flows to reach houses and roads if it continues to flow. The current estimate has the flow reaching Apaa Street in Pahoa around November 1. So far, the only damage the flows have caused is to vegetation.

Italy

In case you missed it, be sure to read David Wolman’s coverage of the appeal for the Italian geologists convicted in the aftermath of the L’Aquila earthquake. It still amazes me how much the Italian judicial system is willing to believe in charlatans and find scapegoats for an act of nature.

from:    http://www.wired.com/2014/10/eruption-update-copahue-poas-sinabung-kilauea-holuhraun-italy/#more-1601379