The Importance of Rainforests

Facts About Rainforests

This interior part of the Amazon rainforest is one of the most diverse corners of the Amazon basin. A hectare of forest typically contains 250 species of large trees.

Credit: Nigel Pitman | The Field Museum

Rainforests are found all over the world — in West and Central Africa, South and Central America, Indonesia, Southeast Asia and Australia — on every continent except Antarctica. They are vitally important, producing most of the oxygen we breathe and providing habitat for half of the planet’s flora and fauna.

The term “rainforest” has a wide classification. Typically, rainforests are lush, humid, hot stretches of land covered in tall, broadleaf evergreen trees, usually found around the equator. These areas usually get rain year-round, typically more than 70 inches (1,800 millimeters) a year, according to the Encyclopedia Britannica. Various types of forests, such as monsoon forests, mangrove forests and temperate forests, can be considered rainforests. Here’s what makes them different:

  • Temperate rainforests consist of coniferous or broadleaf trees and are found in the temperate zones. They are identified as rainforests by the large amount of rain they receive.
  • Mangrove rainforests are, like their name, made of mangrove trees. These trees grow only in brackish waters where rivers meet the ocean.
  • Monsoon rainforests are also called “dry rainforests” because they have a dry season. These get around 31 to 71 inches (800 mm to 1,800 mm) of rain. Up to 75 percent of the trees in dry rainforests can be deciduous.

Most rainforests are very warm, with an average temperature of 86 degrees Fahrenheit (30 degrees Celsius) during the day and 68 degrees F (20 degrees C) at night.

A rainforest consists of two major areas. The very top part is called the canopy, which can be as tall as 98 feet to 164 feet (30 to 50 meters). This area is comprised of the tops of trees and vines. The rest, below the canopy, is called the understory. This can include ferns, flowers, vines, tree trunks and dead leaves.

Some animals stay in the canopy and rarely ever come down to the ground. Some of these animals include monkeys, flying squirrels and sharp-clawed woodpeckers, according to the Encyclopedia Britannica.

Upper montane cloud forest during rainfall at Mt. Kinabalu in Malaysia.
Upper montane cloud forest during rainfall at Mt. Kinabalu in Malaysia.

Credit: L. A. Bruijnzeel and I. S. M. Sieverding

The rainforest is home to many plants and animals. According to The Nature Conservancy, a 4-square-mile (2,560 acres) area of rainforest contains as many as 1,500 flowering plants, 750 species of trees, 400 species of birds and 150 species of butterflies. The Amazon rainforest alone contains around 10 percent of the world’s known species.

Just about every type of animal lives in rainforests. In fact, though rainforests cover less than 2 percent of Earth’s total surface area, they are home to 50 percent of Earth’s plants and animals, according to The Nature Conservancy. For example, rhinoceroses, deer, leopards, gorillas, chimpanzees, elephants, armadillos and even bears can be found living in rainforests across the world.

Many unusual animals and plants have been discovered in rainforests. For example, the fairy lantern parasite (Thismia neptunis) reappeared in the rainforest of Borneo, Malaysia, in 2018, 151 years after it was first documented. This plant sucks on underground fungi and doesn’t need sunlight to survive. “To our knowledge, it is only the second finding of the species in total,” the Czech team of researchers wrote in a paper, which was published Feb. 21, 2018, in the journal Phytotaxa.

Some of the animals are also unusual. For example, the tapir is a mammal that looks like a mix between an anteater and a pig and can be found in the rainforests of South America and Asia. The stunning silverback gorillalives in the rainforest of the Central African Republic. Forest giraffes, or okapi, a strange-looking cross between a horse and a zebra, also inhabit the African rainforest.

One particularly surprising rainforest find is a spider as big as a puppy. The massive South American Goliath birdeater (Theraphosa blondi) is the world’s largest spider, according to Guinness World Records. Each leg can reach up to 1 foot (30 centimeters) long, and it can weigh up to 6 ounces (170 grams).

Seventy percent of the plants identified by the U.S. National Cancer Institute as useful in the treatment of cancer are found only in rainforests, according to The Nature Conservancy. Scientists have identified more than 2,000 tropical forest plants as having anti-cancer properties. However, less than 1 percent of tropical rainforest species have been analyzed for their medicinal value.

Rainforests are found on every continent except Antarctica. Map shows tropical rainforests in dark green and temperate rainforests in light green.
Rainforests are found on every continent except Antarctica. Map shows tropical rainforests in dark green and temperate rainforests in light green.

Credit: Ville Koistinen

Humans and animals rely on the rainforest to make the majority of Earth’s oxygen. One tree produces nearly 260 lbs. of oxygen each year, according to the Growing Air Foundation, and 1 hectare (2.47 acres) of rainforest may contain over 750 types of trees.

A tree uses carbon dioxide to grow. A living tree draws in and stores twice as much carbon dioxide than a fallen tree releases. But when the tree is cut down, it releases its stored carbon dioxide. For example, dead Amazonian trees emit an estimated 1.9 billion tons (1.7 billion metric tons) of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere each year, according to a study published in the journal Nature Communications in 2014. The same trees typically absorb about 2.2 billion tons (2 billion metric tons) of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide makes up around 82.2 percent of all U.S. greenhouse gas, according to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

Out of the 6 million square miles (15 million square kilometers) of tropical rainforest that once existed worldwide, only 2.4 million square miles (6 million square km) remain, and only 50 percent, or 75 million square acres (30 million hectares), of temperate rainforests still exists, according to The Nature Conservancy. Ranching, mining, logging and agriculture are the main reasons for forest loss. Between 2000 and 2012, more than 720,000 square miles (2 million square km) of forests around the world were cut down — an area about the size of all the states east of the Mississippi River.

Deforestation around the world also decreases the global flow of water vapor from land by 4 percent, according to an article published by the journal National Academy of Sciences. Water constantly cycles through the atmosphere. It evaporates from the surface and rises, condensing into clouds. It is blown by the wind, and then falls back to Earth as rain or snow. In addition, water vapor is the most important greenhouse gas in the atmosphere, according to NASA. Even a slight change in the flow of water vapor can disrupt weather patterns and climates.

“Rainforests are under increasing threats for many reasons, including logging, clearing for crops or cattle, and conversion to commercial palm oil plantations,” Jonathan Losos, director of the Living Earth Collaborative and William H. Danforth Distinguished University Professor for the Department of Biology, at Washington University in St. Louis, told Live Science. “On top of that, the changing climate is having adverse effects on rainforest health. Last year was an especially bad one for the Amazon, with a substantial uptick in the rate of deforestation.”

On the other hand, Losos said, there are some glimmers of hope:

  • The two countries with the largest amount of rainforest – Indonesia and Brazil – have both acknowledged the importance of these forests and have taken innovative and aggressive efforts to halt deforestation.
  • There is a growing understanding that halting deforestation and reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are closely linked; new, large-scale efforts are under way to address both concerns.
  • While there is a continued decline in primary rainforests, a bright spot is the fact that in many tropical countries, there is an extensive regeneration of secondary forests, which are critical to supporting much of these countries’ biodiversity.

 

  • from:    https://www.livescience.com/63196-rainforest-facts.html

Legacy of Standing Rock

What Standing Rock Gave the World

Americans saw the Indigenous struggle—the violence, stolen resources, colluding corporations and governments—that goes hand in hand with protecting the Earth.
SRMonet1440.jpg

At the height of the movement at Standing Rock, Indigenous teens half a world away in Norway were tattooing their young bodies with an image of a black snake. Derived from Lakota prophecy, the creature had come to represent the controversial Dakota Access pipeline for the thousands of water protectors determined to try to stop it.

It was a show of international solidarity between the Indigenous Sami and the Lakota. “They got tattoos because of the Norwegian money invested in the pipeline,” said Jan Rune Måsø, editor of the Sami news division of Norway’s largest media company, NRK.

Rune Måsø said the story about the tattoos was just one of about a hundred that his team of journalists covered over the course of the months-long pipeline battle in North Dakota. One of them, “The War on the Black Snake,” was awarded top honors at a journalism conference held in Trømsø in November. That story revealed large investments Norwegian banks had made to advance the $3.8 billion energy project, spurring a divestment campaign by the Sami Parliament.

The backstory can be told simply. As early as April 2016, Indigenous activists protested the pipeline’s threat to the Standing Rock Sioux’s primary water supply, the Missouri River. While battles were fought in federal courts, representatives of hundreds of Indigenous groups from around the world—the Maori, the Sami, and the Sarayaku, to name a few—arrived. Temporary communities of thousands were created on the reservation borderlands in nonviolent resistance against the crude oil project. Police arrested more than 800 people, and many water protectors faced attack dogs, concussion grenades, rubber bullets, and, once, a water cannon on a freezing night in November. Last February, armored vehicles and police in riot gear cleared the last of the encampments. Recently, investigative journalism by The Intercept has documented that the paramilitary security firm TigerSwan was hired by DAPL parent Energy Transfer Partners to guide North Dakota law enforcement in treating the movement as a “national security threat.”

Oil now flows through the pipeline under the Missouri.

But this Indigenous-led disruption, the awakening resolve that was cultivated at Standing Rock, did not dissolve after February. Rather, it spread in so many different directions that we may never fully realize its reach. The spirit of resistance can easily be found in the half-dozen or so other pipeline battles across the United States. Beyond that, the movement amplified the greater struggle worldwide: treaty rights, sacred sites, and the overall stand to protect Indigenous land and life.

To be sure, post-colonization has always demanded acknowledgment of Indigenous autonomy. It’s what spurred months of international advocacy when Haudenosaunee Chief Deskaheh attempted to speak before the League of Nations in Geneva, Switzerland, in 1923. He wanted to remind the world that European colonizers had honored Iroquois Confederacy nationhood upon entering treaty agreements under the two row wampum.

The stand at Standing Rock, then, was not anything new—just more modern.

Google the words “the next Standing Rock” and you get a smattering of circumstances, mostly posed in the form of a question: Bears Ears, Line 3, Yucca Mountain. “The Next Standing Rock?” the headlines ask.

The story of White Clay, Nebraska, is indicative. When the last tipis came down at Standing Rock, Clarence Matthew III, a middle-aged Sicangu Lakota man better known by his camp nickname, Curly, spared little time migrating to the South Dakota–Nebraska border. There, another fight for justice was mounting, for families living on the neighboring Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. This one focused on a decades-long dispute over beer sales targeted at Native American customers mostly prone to alcohol addiction.

Demands turned to broader issues: investigation of dozens of unsolved crimes in White Clay against Native Americans. “Once we got down there, they started telling us about the problems they’ve had, more than just alcohol, the murders, the rapes, and everything that was on the bad side of that alcohol problem,” Matthew said. “It just broke my heart to hear all that.”

Matthew had been caretaker of one of the main communities at Standing Rock, and he settled right in at Camp Justice at the edge of Pine Ridge. He was there with his “water protector family,” others who have adopted camping as an active form of protest.

We’re starting to see other Indigenous communities rise up and say, Let us all speak now.

For all the momentum that the resistance at Standing Rock brought, the Indigenous rights movement in the 21st century faces increasing challenges. Tribal nations tread cautiously under the administration of Donald Trump. Internationally, the militarized protection of extractive energy projects and theft of land persist, despite glaring media attention paid to the rising number of Indigenous peoples killed or jailed for their activism in the face of it.

In a final push for re-election last fall, Standing Rock’s Dave Archambault II gave what would be his last interview as chairman to tribal radio station KLND. Archambault used the airtime to speak matter-of-factly about how the movement had shifted the tribe’s potent public image away from the reservation. “It used to be cool to be Indian; now it’s cool to be from Standing Rock.

“This movement was significant, not just for Standing Rock, but for all of Indian Country and around the world. We made some noise and now we’re starting to see other Indigenous communities rise up and say, Let us all speak now, and it’s pretty powerful and moving,” he said.

Less than a week later and on the same day that the state of North Dakota accepted a $15 million gift from Energy Transfer Partners, Archambault was unseated by former council member Mike Faith, who has said publicly that he believes the overall movement hurt Standing Rock’s economy and neglected daily life for tribal members.

The difference of opinion between the two leaders is a conflict that often lies at the heart of tribal community: protecting the Earth or protecting the Indigenous peoples.

On the eve of Thanksgiving 2017, when the Keystone pipeline ruptured and spilled 210,000 gallons of oil in neighboring South Dakota, the newly elected Faith remained notably silent while water protectors responded with outrage, most loudly, closest to home.

Sustaining this awakening is the next great task.

“Ironically, this week most Americans will be sitting down and giving thanks when last year at this time my people were being shot, gassed, and beaten for trying to keep this very thing from happening,” Chairman Harold Frazier from the neighboring Cheyenne River Sioux tribe said in a statement. Like Archambault and other tribal leaders, Frazier was arrested for participating in the Standing Rock occupation.

Leadership in the Indigenous world is not only a difficult balance, but also dangerous.

In Honduras, activist Bertha Zuniga Cáceres is fighting for Indigenous rights in one of the most militarized regions in the world. She is the daughter of Berta Cáceres, the Indigenous Lenca woman who was assassinated after leading a successful campaign to halt construction of the Agua Zarca Dam. Now she is seeking justice for her mother’s death.

The 26-year-old Cáceres is also campaigning to suspend all U.S. military aid to Honduras. In July, she survived an attack by a group of assailants wielding machetes. Just weeks earlier she had been named the new leader of the Council of Popular and Indigenous Organizations of Honduras, the nonprofit organization formerly led by her mother.

“Many organizations, many NGOs, many Indigenous groups are struggling in how to sustain the work that they are doing in the face of these attacks,” said Katharina Rall, a researcher for Human Rights Watch.

Last year, after the military-style assaults on the camps at Standing Rock, Human Rights Watch expanded its agenda to include a program focused on the environment as a human right. “The fact that we now have an environment and human rights program at our organization is a reflection of this reality that a lot of people face,” Rall said.

Meantime, the organization Global Witness reports that it has never been deadlier to take a stand against companies that steal land and destroy the Earth. In 2016, the watchdog group found that nearly four activists a week are murdered fighting against mining, logging, and other extractive resource development.

Traditional knowledge has kept us in harmony with Mother Earth.

As disturbing as this reality is, it is unsurprising then to recall the military-style violence at Standing Rock: the rows of riot police pointing their guns at unarmed activists standing in the river; tanks shooting water in freezing temperatures at a crowd of people gathered on a bridge. In this one regard, Standing Rock was not unique in the world. It had become crucially important. Americans saw the global struggle faced by the estimated 370 million Indigenous people—the violence, stolen resources, colluding corporations and governments that go hand in hand with protecting the Earth.

Sustaining this awakening is the next great task.

Climate change poses one of the most serious reminders of why the sacred fires ignited at Standing Rock must continue to burn: Indigenous peoples and their knowledge and value systems matter.

At November’s COP23 climate conference in Bonn, Germany, Hindou Oumarou Ibrahim was dressed in traditional Mbororo regalia when she stood in a conference hall demanding that Indigenous knowledge systems be properly acknowledged in Paris Agreement negotiations. The girl who once tended cattle in the region of Chad bordering northeastern Nigeria has now become a bridge for her people and government officials making decisions impacting the fragile ecosystem of Lake Chad, the lifeline for the Mbororo.

“Traditional knowledge has kept us from century to century to be in harmony with Mother Earth,” Ibrahim said. “These knowledges will make for all the difference, but we cannot wait years and years, because climate is changing, and it’s impacting the Earth.”

Other members of the Indigenous Caucus at Bonn say inserting traditional knowledge into the climate talks doesn’t go far enough. Jannie Staffansson, a representative of the Saami Council, wants what Chief Deskaheh had petitioned to the League of Nations nearly a century earlier: sovereign recognition for Indigenous Peoples on an international scale. It would allow equity at the negotiating table—a level playing field to fairly deal with the consequences of a warming planet in the face of land grabs and natural resource extraction.

“Why is it always that Indigenous peoples need to pay for other people’s wealth?” said Staffansson. She paused to check the Snapchat account she had been using to engage with a young Sami audience while at COP, a demographic similar to the teens who got tattoos of the black snake.

“I had friends that went to Standing Rock,” said the 27-year-old. “I was envious of their trip to support self-determination. Self-determination and a just transition is what we have to take into account.”

“We need climate justice in everything we do.”

Jenni Monet wrote this article for The Decolonize Issue, the Spring 2018 issue of YES! Magazine. Jenni is an award-winning journalist and tribal member of the Pueblo of Laguna in New Mexico. She’s also executive producer and host of the podcast Still Here.

from:    http://www.yesmagazine.org/issues/decolonize/what-standing-rock-gave-the-world-20180316

Odd Movement of Jest Stream

Jet stream crosses the equator

Jet stream crosses the equator

A post about the jet stream now crossing the equator, published by Robert Scribbler yesterday, is making a lot of noise on social networks today.

In his post, titled “Gigantic Gravity Waves to Mix Summer With Winter? Wrecked Jet Stream Now Runs From Pole-to-Pole,” Scribbler writes:

“The Jet Stream now has redefined all boundaries — flowing at times from the East Siberian Sea in the Arctic across the Equator and all the way south to West Antarctica.

That’s bad news for seasonality.

Prevention of mixing of air between Hemispheres by the thick, hot tropical air mass is what has generated a strong division between Summer and Winter during the Holocene Climate Epoch.

However, erode that boundary and you get more Summer heat spilling over into the Winter zone and vice versa. You get this weather-destabilizing and extreme weather generating mixing of seasons that is all part of a very difficult to deal with ‘Death of Winter’ type scenario.”

Wind – 250 hPa – June 28, 2016 @ 09:00 UTC. Credit: Earth Nullschool (link to this setup)

Later on, Paul Beckwith, a part-time Geography professor (climatology, oceanography, environmental issues) at the University of Ottawa, published this video, explaining what’s going on, from his perspective:

“Our climate system behavior continues to behave in new and scary ways that we have never anticipated, or seen before. Welcome to climate chaos. We must declare a global climate emergency,” Beckwith concludes.

Featured image: Wind – 250 hPa – June 28, 2016 @ 09:00 UTC. Credit: earthnullschool

from:    http://thewatchers.adorraeli.com/2016/06/29/jet-stream-crosses-the-equator/

Think It’s Hot? It Is!

2016 Is Blowing Away Global Heat Records

By Climate Central

May 2016 was the warmest May on record, 1.56°F (0.87°C) above the 20th century average. It was the first month since November 2013 to have an anomaly less than 1°C above the 20th century average, a sign of El Nino’s demise.

For the year-to-date, temperatures are 1.9°F (1.08°C) above the 20th century average, according to NOAA, putting it 0.43°F (0.24°C) above where 2015 was at this point. A Climate Central analysis that averages NOAA and NASA temperature data and compares them to a 1881-1910 baseline (closer to pre-industrial temperatures) found that the year-to-date is 2.5°F (1.39°C) above that average, edging closer to 1.5°C above pre-industrial temperatures.

So far, it is likely that 2016 will top 2015 as the warmest year on record, but that depends in part on how the rest of the year plays out. If a La Nina forms by fall, as expected, that could depress global temperatures slightly.

In a mark of how hot the last few years (which saw three consecutive record hot years) have been, NOAA compared the top 10 warmest months globally as of November 2013 to the current list. As of last month, all but one of the 10 warmest months on recorded occurred in 2016 and 2015. The lone exception was January 2007, which was tied for tenth place. Back in November 2003, it was the warmest month on record.

from:   http://www.climatecentral.org/gallery/graphics/2016-is-blowing-away-global-heat-records

Weather Report: Hot, Hot, Hotter

2016 Is Blowing Away Global Heat Records

By Climate Central

May 2016 was the warmest May on record, 1.56°F (0.87°C) above the 20th century average. It was the first month since November 2013 to have an anomaly less than 1°C above the 20th century average, a sign of El Nino’s demise.

For the year-to-date, temperatures are 1.9°F (1.08°C) above the 20th century average, according to NOAA, putting it 0.43°F (0.24°C) above where 2015 was at this point. A Climate Central analysis that averages NOAA and NASA temperature data and compares them to a 1881-1910 baseline (closer to pre-industrial temperatures) found that the year-to-date is 2.5°F (1.39°C) above that average, edging closer to 1.5°C above pre-industrial temperatures.

So far, it is likely that 2016 will top 2015 as the warmest year on record, but that depends in part on how the rest of the year plays out. If a La Nina forms by fall, as expected, that could depress global temperatures slightly.

In a mark of how hot the last few years (which saw three consecutive record hot years) have been, NOAA compared the top 10 warmest months globally as of November 2013 to the current list. As of last month, all but one of the 10 warmest months on recorded occurred in 2016 and 2015. The lone exception was January 2007, which was tied for tenth place. Back in November 2003, it was the warmest month on record.

from:    http://www.climatecentral.org/gallery/graphics/2016-is-blowing-away-global-heat-records

More on Climate Change

North Atlantic cooling suggests climate is about to change over much of the northern hemisphere

North Atlantic cooling suggests climate is about to change over much of the northern hemisphere

Based on the observations of ocean heat content in the North Atlantic Ocean, the climate in the northern hemisphere is on the verge of a change that could last for several decades. This change is associated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO)1 – a mode of natural variability occurring, with a period of 60 – 80 years, in the North Atlantic Ocean sea surface temperature (SST) field.

Observations made by Argo buoys2 have shown that the North Atlantic Ocean (60-0W, 30-65N) is rapidly cooling since 20073. This is associated with the natural variability in the North Atlantic Ocean sea surface temperatures – the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). However, the observed cooling does not only apply to the sea surface, but to the uppermost 700 m (2 296 feet) of the ocean.

The AMO index appears to be correlated to air temperatures and rainfall over much of the northern hemisphere4. The association appears to be high for North Eastern Brazil, African Sahel rainfall and North American and European summer climate. The AMO index also appears to be associated with changes in the frequency of North American droughts and is reflected in the frequency of severe Atlantic hurricanes.

“As one example, the AMO index may be related to the past occurrence of major droughts in the US Midwest and the Southwest. When the AMO is high, these droughts tend to be more frequent or prolonged, and vice-versa for low values of AMO. Two of the most severe droughts of the 20th century in the US occurred during the peak AMO values between 1925 and 1965: The Dust Bowl of the 1930s and the 1950s drought. On the other hand, Florida and the Pacific Northwest tend to be the opposite; high AMO is associated with relatively high precipitation.”

Cooling of the Atlantic is likely to bring drier summers in Britain and Ireland, accelerated sea-level rise along the northeast coast of the United States, and drought in the developing countries of the African Sahel region, a press release for a study by scientists from the University of Southampton and National Oceanography Centre (NOC) published last year said5. “Since this new climatic phase could be half a degree cooler, it may well offer a brief reprise from the rise of global temperatures, as well as result in fewer hurricanes hitting the United States. The study proves that ocean circulation is the link between weather and decadal scale climatic change. It is based on observational evidence of the link between ocean circulation and the decadal variability of sea surface temperatures in the Atlantic Ocean.”

Lead author of this study, Dr. Gerard McCarthy from the NOC, said: “Sea-surface temperatures in the Atlantic vary between warm and cold over time-scales of many decades. These variations have been shown to influence temperature, rainfall, drought and even the frequency of hurricanes in many regions of the world. This decadal variability is a notable feature of the Atlantic Ocean and the climate of the regions it influences.”

These climatic phases, referred to as positive or negative AMO’s, are the result of the movement of heat northwards by a system of ocean currents. This movement of heat changes the temperature of the sea surface, which has a profound impact on climate on timescales of 20 – 30 years. The strength of these currents is determined by the same atmospheric conditions that control the position of the jet stream. Negative AMO’s occur when the currents are weaker and so less heat is carried northwards towards Europe from the tropics. The strength of ocean currents has been measured by a network of sensors, called the RAPID array, which have been collecting data on the flow rate of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) for a decade.

The AMOC, part of which is known as the Gulf Stream, has been seen to weaken over the past 10 years, a study by Laura Jackson of the UK’s Met Office said6. Her study also suggests that this weakening trend is likely due to variability over decades. “The AMOC plays a vital role in our climate as it transports heat northwards in the Atlantic and keeps Europe relatively warm,” Jackson said. Any substantial weakening of a major North Atlantic ocean current system would have a profound impact on the climate of northwest Europe, including the UK. The research also showed a link between the weakening in the AMOC and decreases in density in the Labrador Sea (between Greenland and Canada) several years earlier.

In the diagrams below, courtesy of Ole Humlum4, only original (raw) AMO values are shown.

Humlum writes: “As is seen from the annual diagram, the AMO index has been increasing since the beginning of the record in 1856, although with a clear, about 60 yr long, variation superimposed. Often, AMO values are shown linearly detrended to remove the overall increase since 1856, to emphasize the apparent rhythmic 60 yr variation. This detrending is usually intended to remove the alleged influence of greenhouse gas-induced global warming from the analysis, believed to cause the overall increase. However, as is seen in the diagram below, the overall increase has taken place since at least 1856, long before the alleged strong influence of increasing atmospheric CO2 began around 1975 (IPCC 2007). Therefore, the overall increase is likely to have another explanation; it may simply represent a natural recovery since the end of the previous cold period (the Little Ice Age). If so, the general AMO increase since 1856 may well represent part of a longer natural variation, too long to be fully represented by the AMO data series since 1856. For the above reasons, only the original (not detrended) AMO values are shown in the two diagrams below:”

Annual Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) index values since 1856. The thin line indicates 3-month average values, and the thick line is the simple running 11-year average. Data source: Earth System Research Laboratory at NOAA. Last year shown: 2015. Last diagram update January 20, 2016.

Monthly Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) index values since January 1979. The thin line indicates 3-month average values, and the thick line is the simple running 11-year average. By choosing January 1979 as starting point, the diagram is easy to compare with other types of temperature diagrams covering the satellite period since 1979. Data source: Earth System Research Laboratory at NOAA. Last month shown: May 2016. Last diagram update: June 13, 2016.

The map below shows the North Atlantic area within 60-0W and 30-65N, for which the heat content within the uppermost 700 m is shown in the diagrams below it3.

North Atlantic area within 60-0W and 30-65N. Credit: Climate4you

Global monthly heat content anomaly (GJ/m2) in the uppermost 700 m of the North Atlantic (60-0W, 30-65N) ocean since January 1979. The thin line indicates monthly values, and the thick line represents the simple running 37 month (c. 3 year) average. The starting month (January 1979) is chosen to enable easy comparison with global air temperature estimates within the satellite period. Data source: National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC). Last period shown: January-March 2016. Last diagram update June 7, 2016.

Global monthly heat content anomaly (GJ/m2) in the uppermost 700 m of the North Atlantic (60-0W, 30-65N) ocean since January 1955. The thin line indicates monthly values, and the thick line represents the simple running 37 month (c. 3 year) average. Data source: National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC). Last period shown: January-March 2016. Last diagram update June 7, 2016.

Interestingly, in a study by Zhou et al.7, a significant correlation was found between the solar wind speed (SWS) and sea surface temperature (SST) in the region of the North Atlantic Ocean for the northern hemisphere winter from 1963 to 2010, based on 3-month seasonal averages. “The correlation is dependent on Bz (the interplanetary magnetic field component parallel to the Earth’s magnetic dipole) as well as the SWS, and somewhat stronger in the stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) west phase than in the east phase. The correlations with the SWS are stronger than those with the F10.7 parameter representing solar UV inputs to the stratosphere. SST responds to changes in tropospheric dynamics via wind stress, and to changes in cloud cover affecting the radiative balance. Suggested mechanisms for the solar influence on SST include changes in atmospheric ionization and cloud microphysics affecting cloud cover, storm invigoration, and tropospheric dynamics. Such changes modify upward wave propagation to the stratosphere, affecting the dynamics of the polar vortex. Also, direct solar inputs, including energetic particles and solar UV, produce stratospheric dynamical changes. Downward propagation of stratospheric dynamical changes eventually further perturbs tropospheric dynamics and SST.”

The solar-wind speeds peak about 3 or 4 years after the Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) and sunspots peak in each cycle8.

Sunspot number progression observed from 2000 – May 2016. Credit NOAA/SWPC

Based on the current sunspot observations, their number for this solar cycle has peaked in January 2015, and our star is now on a steady path toward its next Solar Minimum, expected to hit the base just after 2020.

Global sea surface temperature anomaly for June 13, 2016 – current deviation of the surface temperature of Earth’s oceans from normal. Credit: NCEP (link leads to the latest map)

North Atlantic Ocean sea surface anomaly for June 13, 2016 – current deviation from normal. Credit: NCEP (link leads to the latest map)

References:

  1. Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO) – NCAR/UCAR – CGD’s Climate Analysis Section
  2. Argo – UCSanDiego –  Argo is a major contributor to the WCRP ‘s Climate Variability and Predictability Experiment (CLIVAR) project and to the Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE). The Argo array is part of the Global Climate Observing System/Global Ocean Observing System GCOS /GOOS
  3. North Atlantic Ocean (60-0W, 30-65N) heat content 0-700 m depth – Climate4you
  4. AMO (Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation) Index – Climate4you
  5. Global climate on verge of multi-decadal change – Science Daily
  6. Research provides new perspectives on recent changes in the Atlantic Ocean – UK Met Office
  7. Correlations of global sea surface temperatures with the solar wind speed – Zhou et. al. – Science Direct
  8. The Solar Wind may be changing the surface temperature of the North Atlantic – JoNova

Featured image: North Atlantic Ocean sea surface anomaly for June 13, 2016 – current deviation from normal. Credit: NCEP

from:    http://thewatchers.adorraeli.com/2016/06/14/north-atlantic-cooling-suggests-climate-is-about-to-change-over-much-of-the-northern-hemisphere/

Latest Hathor Message fr/Tom Kenyon

Destabilization

A Hathor Planetary Message through Tom Kenyon

Your world is entering a period of immense destabilization.

In past messages we have referred to Chaotic Nodes as unexpected catalytic and chaotic changes. We have also noted in past communications that multiple Chaotic Nodes are emerging, and their interaction is what we are referring in this message as destabilization.

(see a previous Hathor message titled Escalation of Chaotic Nodes and the Dismantling of 3-D Reality).

This destabilization of your world is occurring at the ecological, social and individual levels of existence.

Let’s begin with the ecological issues.

Your planetary environment is, essentially, being poisoned. The acidification of your oceans, the overuse of pesticides, chemical agents and fossil fuels are all interacting to create an ecological Chaotic Node of immense proportions. Indeed, a growing number of your scientists are saying that your Earth is entering the beginning stages of a “6th mass extinction.”

We will turn our attention to the ramifications of these issues in a moment but let us address the other two levels first.

At a social level your world is entering a highly volatile and destabilizing state. This is a complex situation but addressing the most rudimentary levels we would say you are witnessing a clash of cultural values as well as the impact of both climate change and war on migrations of human populations, some of which are being caused by circumstances and some of which are being manipulated by power brokers behind the scenes.

The third level is the individual—you—the one reading this message.

This is also a complex situation and there are several levels involved. One of these levels has to do with the poisoning of your planet’s environment that we mentioned earlier. And as a result of climate change and deforestation, new forms of bacteria and viruses are being spread globally.

These microforms of life are not inert. They are living intelligences that evolve, and they are evolving very rapidly in ways that will make your current medical methodologies for dealing with them ineffective.

A second challenge to your individual stability has to do with the magnetic shifts and dimensional alterations that are unfolding on your planet. Because your nervous system operates according to the principles of bio-electromagnetism, the neural networks in your nervous systems are being challenged by these shifts and alterations. Some of you, especially those who are energetically sensitive, will be prone to this more than others. But increasingly, no one will be exempt.

Communications between human beings will get more challenging—to be gracious about it.

What may surprise you is that some of these challenges will arise in close friendships and intimate relationships. You may find that seemingly insignificant external events can set off tsunamis of emotional responses.

There are two primary reasons for this phenomenon.

The first has to do with the destabilization of your nervous system making it more prone to losing its center. And the second level has to do with the process of catalytic evolution that you are undergoing as a human being at this point in time. What we mean by this is what has been hidden is being revealed. The deepest catacombs of your subconscious are being turned over like a plow cutting through a field. This is essentially a very disturbing state to deal with especially for those of you who think of yourselves as spiritual beings.

If you are of the opinion that being a spiritual being requires that you always be in a state of bliss and happiness then you will find this purification process deeply disturbing, but it is—quite frankly—required for individual evolution and liberation from the restrictions imposed by your religions and confining histories. It is also necessary for humanity, as a whole, to face and transform its own shadow material (i.e., unresolved emotional issues and destructive belief patterns) if humankind is to survive.

In past messages we have said that a course of action could be changed in the 11th hour. By this we were referring to a metaphor meaning that in the last hour before an irrevocable shift occurs it is possible to change an outcome.

We are still of this opinion, but you are well past the 11th hour. You are at one minute before midnight, metaphorically speaking, of course.

What this means is that massive changes will have to occur in a very short period of time if you are collectively to avoid the 6th mass extinction.

As the ecological and social aspects of this destabilization process are so complex, we wish to confine our comments to practical suggestions for you.

One marker, evolutionarily speaking for transition states between dimensions as a human being, is the growing perception that life is a dream. If this occurs for you, you will experience your life and the events of your life as having a dreamlike insubstantial quality. You will still have to deal with the realities of your physical existence, but there will be an increasing sense that your physical existence has an unreal quality about it.

We do realize that in many of our messages we have sounded like a broken record, repeating ourselves again and again especially when referring to coherent states of emotion like happiness, joy and/or appreciation. This has to do with physics and neuropsychology. Coherent states of emotion are an antidote to the destabilization of your nervous system caused by the various factors that we mentioned previously.

There are many ways to accomplish this task of bringing coherency to your nervous system. For one, we suggest you work with the sound meditation A Bridge Between the Worlds (see Tom’s comments below) on a regular basis as a means to introduce this type of coherent emotion into your nervous system.

Another way to create more coherency is to introduce more joy into your life, which is indeed paradoxical for many of you. Very few cultures underwrite the necessity for joy as a value. Sacrifice, martyrdom and self-forgetting are what seem to be valued most in many societies, but from our perspective these are the greatest errors, at least from the perspective of spiritual evolution.

We are very sensitive to the fact that many of you reading this message may be dealing with this paradox (i.e., how to create more joy your life) in very direct and challenging ways.

Our advice, like all advice, should be “taken with a grain of salt.” This is simply our perspective on this particular challenge. Having stated this caveat, our suggestion is to cleave away from your life the thought forms of self-sacrifice and martyrdom. Find more ways to discover joy even in the smallest things. It does not matter how small they are.

And finally, find the courage to speak your truth to those closest to you. This type of truth speaking and self-revealing is, in our opinion, critical for your successful transition through the current and on-going period of global destabilization.

from:    http://tomkenyon.com/destabilization

Manipulating Climate

Engineering Winter, The Increasing Desperation Of The Weather-Makers

by Elle Nov 9, 2015

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Dane Wigington
Contributor, ZenGardner.com

The climate engineers are increasingly desperate to mask the true extent of planetary meltdown by creating short term extreme chemical cool-downs. In recent winters the geoengineers kept most of their focus on the Eastern US. Boston was the target for headlines in the winter of 2014-2015. The engineered winter in the East was accompanied by engineered drought in the West. The 8 minute video below, “Engineered Winter, Engineered Drought” outlines this scenario.

In the next map the sporadic spotting of frozen precipitation is telling. Rain in northern Montana and snow in south central Arizona. Chemical ice nucleating materials sprayed over storm precipitation can and do turn what should have fallen as rain, into snow. The Chinese government has openly disclosed this practice. The nucleation process creates a cold dense layer of air which sinks, builds up on the ground, and eventually lowers the mercury. This is a temporary effect, but it produces the desired headlines and deception in regard to the overall picture.

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The Nov. 4, 2015, map below shows extensive radio frequency/microwave transmission impacts which are clearly visible in the moisture flows feeding the engineered western winter event.

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On the evening of November 4th, 2015, corporate media (like the Weather Channel) were trumpeting the big winter storm in the West. Does the next map below reflect true winter snow storm temperatures? There is only one temperature reading on the entire map that is even at the freezing mark, and that is not where the snow is falling. The majority of the map shows record or near record highs for a 6 pm temperature reading for November 4th. More record highs are expected in the East during the coming week and perhaps off and on during the rest of November. Welcome to geoengineered weather whiplash.

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The Taos New Mexico report below shows possible snow showers for Thursday November 5th at a temperature of 41 degrees. Why would it snow at 41 degrees?

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Let’s go North to Montana where snow showers can apparently occur at 43 degrees after rain at 41 degrees.

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This is the latest NOAA extended “forecast” (scheduled weather) map. It is important to remember that private defense contractor (and geoengineering entity) Raytheon, does all the weather modeling for NOAA (whose personnel are all under a federal “gag order” along with all NWS employees). This is yet another ridiculously unprecedented scenario showing conditions that are unbelievably out of balance. Record high temperatures in the East are expected to continue in some regions until mid November.

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What did it look like for most of the last three winters? The exact opposite of what is occurring at this time. The East was put under the big chill while the West was fried. The geoengineers can only cover so much area with their jet stream manipulated chemical cool-downs. The size of those areas is shrinking as the planet continues to warm.

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The map below is especially astounding and documents a very tragic event that occurred on October 4th, 2013.

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Take a good look at the temperatures on the map above, they are as a whole, very high. The small cool section is a huge departure from the rest of the country, but still there are no below freezing temperatures shown. Yet, this map documented a snowstorm in South Dakota that killed up to 100,000 cows, how is that possible when temperatures were almost 90 degrees in regions surrounding the event? I captured the temperature map above before it was taken offline, the map reflects another example of engineered winter.

The next map shows the “departure from normal high temperatures” for a 2 year period from 2013 to 2015. The constantly engineered cooling Eastern North America is evident. It has been the most anomalously below normal zone in the entire world since 2013 (2012 was the warmest year ever recorded in the US). What happened? The geoengineering assault was ramped up to new highs. Temporary toxic cooling at the cost of a worsened overall warming.

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Though there are countless sources of anthropogenic damage to the planet and the climate system, climate engineering must be considered the top of the list. The ongoing winter weather warfare is not natural in any way. The extreme climate forcing being pushed on planet Earth by the climate engineers is tearing the climate system apart and wreaking havoc on the biosphere as a whole. Few have any idea how extensively the weather and climate is being modified. Even many who are already aware of geoengineering are unfortunately not yet acknowledging the cool-downs for what they are, completely engineered. Accepting the engineered cool-downs as natural is exactly what the power structure and the geoengineers want, why would we do their bidding? If we are to effectively fight against the climate engineering insanity, it is imperative to understand and recognize all the parts to the puzzle. The engineered deception of the US population is a major goal for the geoengineers, we must all learn to see through it. Make your voice heard in the critical battle to stop the ongoing omnicide being inflicted on our planet by climate engineering.

+++

ZenGardner.com

from:    http://www.zengardner.com/engineering-winter-increasing-desperation-weather-makers/

Climate Change & Geoengineering

Climate Engineer’s Latest Forecast From NASA: “Mostly Cloudy”

by Dane Wigington

Contributor, ZenGardner.com

The newly produced map below reveals the most recent NASA “forecast” for planet Earth, “mostly cloudy”. This composite image of Earth’s cloud patterns shows NASA’s Aqua satellite observations from July 2002 to April 2015. Colors range from dark blue (no clouds) to white (frequent clouds). Photo credit: NASA Earth Observatory

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The next image is a combination satellite/radar map. In the combination format map the more heavily aerosolized cloud cover shows up as the brightest white. The goal of SRM (solar radiation management) is to blot out as much sky as possible for the stated purpose of global warming mitigation, but even NASA admits the “aircraft clouds” are making global warming worse overall, not better. A “Scientific American” published study states “geoengineering could turn skies white“. Wherever there is moisture, there will generally be the most consistent and heaviest spraying. This has the effect of greatly diminishing the overall precipitation that otherwise would have occurred and scattering the aerosolized cloud cover over vast areas (though deluges can also increase where too much moisture accumulates).

The bright white aerosolized cloud cover broadcasting out from the areas of precipitation in the map are indicative of the aerosol spraying that is taking place in each region. A massive heavily sprayed zonal flow of moisture is very visible plowing into the entire west coast, yet there is almost no precipitation showing up for the reasons already cited. Historically, counterclockwise swirls of low pressure storms constantly pounded the Pacific Northwest with heavy precipitation. Now, more often than not, there are just large drifting massive canopies of heavily aerosolized cloud cover with some rain in the most dense areas of moisture build up. “Mostly sunny” is now also a common meteorological term of choice and is often used in “forecasting” days with heavy spraying. “Meteorologists”, in so many cases, are now simply paid liars reading the scripts they are given .

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Radio frequency transmissions are a major component regarding the manipulation of the highly electrically conductive aerosol particulates being sprayed into skies around the globe. Though “official sources”, of course, completely deny any connection between the radio frequency transmitters and weather modification, available date says otherwise. The map below from October 7, 2015, is only one example of the radio frequency bombardment occurring on a constant basis. This map does not reflect the much larger radio frequency transmitters known as “ionosphere heaters” (which have an even greater effect on the overall climate system).

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Take a good look next map below, If you think the images in the map are just “clouds” showing up on radar, they are not, and the National Weather Service admits it. So what are these large and very distinct radar images from? According to the National Weather Service, it’s all just “butterflies”. No, this is not a joke. “Official statements” from “official sources” are becoming astounding beyond comprehension.

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“Mother Nature Network” claims this upper level aerosol accumulation shown in the photo below (with a very clear radio frequency pattern) is just a natural “rainbow cloud”, do you believe them?

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Below is the NOAA forecast (scheduled weather) map for the middle of October. Each shade represents a 2-3 degree “departure from normal” temperature zone. Places in the western US are thus “forecasted” to be a record shattering 20 to 25 degrees above normal which has already been the case for an extremely long time. The record heat and drought continues to fuel record forest fires in the region.

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The next image shows that the remaining pool of cold air at the top of the world is rapidly shrinking as the geoengineering juggernaut of insanity continues to shred the ozone layer and the climate system as a whole (along with other contributing anthropogenic factors).

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The global temperature maps below reflect the true state of our rapidly warming completely geoengineered planet.

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Ocean temperatures are already radically above normal, especially in the Arctic ocean as the mapping below clearly shows.

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The current Arctic ice volume (ice mass) is at all time record low levels and continues to decline very rapidly due to all the record warm conditions already cited. 2015 saw the lowest Arctic ice “maximum” ever recorded. So how is it that the Arctic ice “extent” (surface area) hit it’s minimum for the year on September 11th, 2015 (4th lowest extent ever recorded), and has increased since? Welcome to geoengineering and chemical ice nucleation. What is the true extent of climate engineering experimentation currently occurring in the Arctic?

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Where are we heading if we stay on the current course? Few are yet willing to face the fact that our planet will very soon not support life unless there is a complete change of direction on many fronts, starting with the complete cessation of the climate engineering insanity. Geoengineering is fueling countless catastrophic scenarios on our planet including mass methane release in the Arctic. We are on track for “Venus Syndrome“. Though industrialized civilization is already in its final stages and will soon collapse, we could yet salvage a planet that could sustain life. With each passing day we are determining our own future by what we do, or don’t do. The greatest single leap we could collectively make in the right direction is to expose and halt the weather warfare assault. Arm yourself with credible data and pass it on to others. Ask them to do the same. We must make every day count in this critical fight, time is not on our side.  DW

geoengineeringwatch.org

from:     http://www.zengardner.com/climate-engineers-latest-forecast-nasa-mostly-cloudy/

Geo-Engineering Whistleblowers

Geoengineering Whistleblowers: USDA Official, Forest Service Scientist and Military Veterans Speak Out

US Forest Service Scientist, Defense Industry Technician and Military Veterans Speak Out About Geoengineering 4

17th September 2015

By Dane Wigington

Guest Writer for Wake Up World

Exposing the Climate Modification Assault Against Humanity

On August 14th, 2015, there was a major event in Northern California that was organized for the purpose of exposing and halting global climate engineering programs that are decimating our planet and the entire web of life. Numerous experts spoke out at this event including attorneys, former government scientists, a former defense industry technician, former military personnel, a prominent Northern California neurologist, and a CEO for one of the largest environmental and engineering consulting firms in the world. Approximately 1000 people attended this event.

This article features videos of 3 key speeches from this groundbreaking event, plus presentations from U.S. Air Force Bio-Environmental Engineer turned geoengineering whistleblower, Kristen Meghan.

Former U.S. Department of Agriculture Official, Rosalind Peterson

Rosalind Peterson is a former U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) farm service agency agricultural crop loss adjustor and co-founder of the Agriculture Defense Coalition (ADC). Rosalind has spoken on the floor of the United Nations about the climate engineering issue (at the 60th Annual Conference on Climate Change) and has fought long and hard to expose the the truth about many dire issues. Her statement of urgency is contained in the video below.

Former US Forest Service biologist, Francis Mangels

Former US Forest Service biologist, Francis Mangels, has shown tremendous courage by consistently speaking out about the extremely dire heavy metal contamination we are all being exposed to from the ongoing climate engineering fallout. Because Francis is a former government scientist, his ongoing lab testing has been extremely helpful in the battle to expose climate engineering. A short statement of urgency from Francis is featured in the attached video below.

US Military Veteran, Mario Ramirez

Mario Ramirez is a US Navy veteran who has shown tremendous courage by speaking publicly about the tyranny that is rampant within the ranks of our own government and military. I have great respect for Mario, he is setting an example of honesty that will help to compel other honorable armed services personnel to step forward and tell their story.

Former defense industry technician, Mark McCandlish

Former defense industry technician Mark McCandlish has been a very outspoken voice in the ongoing fight to expose the global climate engineering insanity. Mark has a long resume which includes employment by Lockheed-Martin, Boeing, McDonnell-Douglas, Northrop Grumman, the US military, and others. In the video below Mark shares his perspectives on the dire threat we face from ongoing aerosol spraying of our skies.

My deepest appreciation to emcee John B. Wells (radio host for the acclaimed “Caravan to Midnight” show), to all the speakers who participated in this event and shared their knowledge, to each and every activist that contributed countless hours, and of course our gratitude to all those that attended the event.

Ex-Military Specialist, Kristen Meghan

The following 2 videos are introduced by Andy Whiteley, Co-Founder of Wake Up World.

Kristen Meghan spent nine years in active duty in the U.S. Air Force, as a Bio-Environmental Engineer (Air Force Specialty Code 4BOX1). Meghan audited chemicals as part of her USAF duties, and when she heard about the “chemtrails conspiracy”, she wanted to prove it wrong — but the opposite happened.

“In an attempt to debunk it, it changed my life,” Meghan says.

In the following presentation filmed in Hauppauge, NY, 2014, Kristen Meghan gives an informative presentation of what she had discovered about Geoengineering while serving her country, and exposes websites “Metabunk” and “Contrail Science” as government sponsored disinformation sites.

In this second presentation, filmed at the 2013 Atlanta Music Liberty Festival, Kristen Meghan explains how she discovered evidence of Geoengineering programs, and reveals why she left the military — after an attempt to silence her from speaking out on employee exposures from industrial sanding operations.

California Jam 2015, featuring Dane Wigington

On March 27th and 28th of 2015, a major global awareness event was held in Southern California called “Cal Jam”. This gathering brought together several thousand concerned citizens from all arenas of the global community. Many that attended were from the medical and chiropractic professions, and a number of speakers presented information on critical issues that we face.

One of the primary subjects addressed was the issue of geoengineering. The 25 minute presentation below is an outline of the threat posed by global climate engineering. It is also an appeal for all of us to pull together in the critical effort to expose and halt the spraying of our skies with highly toxic aerosols which is contaminating every breath we take.

My deepest and most sincere gratitude to event organizers, Dr. Billy DeMoss, D.C. and Mary Jane Mirasol, for their tireless efforts toward the common good and for producing this video. I also wish to thank all the other speakers at the Cal Jam event as well as all those who attended. Cal Jam was truly a gathering of people who are committed to making the world a better place.

Learn how you can help and join us in this all important fight for the future of our planet.

from:    http://wakeup-world.com/2015/09/17/geoengineering-whistleblowers-usda-official-forest-service-scientist-and-military-veterans-speak-out/